Summary: 3'5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase
This is the Wikipedia entry entitled "Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase". More...
The Wikipedia text that you see displayed here is a download from Wikipedia. This means that the information we display is a copy of the information from the Wikipedia database. The button next to the article title ("Edit Wikipedia article") takes you to the edit page for the article directly within Wikipedia. You should be aware you are not editing our local copy of this information. Any changes that you make to the Wikipedia article will not be displayed here until we next download the article from Wikipedia. We currently download new content on a nightly basis.
Does Pfam agree with the content of the Wikipedia entry ?
Pfam has chosen to link families to Wikipedia articles. In some case we have created or edited these articles but in many other cases we have not made any direct contribution to the content of the article. The Wikipedia community does monitor edits to try to ensure that (a) the quality of article annotation increases, and (b) vandalism is very quickly dealt with. However, we would like to emphasise that Pfam does not curate the Wikipedia entries and we cannot guarantee the accuracy of the information on the Wikipedia page.
Editing Wikipedia articles
Before you edit for the first time
Wikipedia is a free, online encyclopedia. Although anyone can edit or contribute to an article, Wikipedia has some strong editing guidelines and policies, which promote the Wikipedia standard of style and etiquette. Your edits and contributions are more likely to be accepted (and remain) if they are in accordance with this policy.
You should take a few minutes to view the following pages:
How your contribution will be recorded
Anyone can edit a Wikipedia entry. You can do this either as a new user or you can register with Wikipedia and log on. When you click on the "Edit Wikipedia article" button, your browser will direct you to the edit page for this entry in Wikipedia. If you are a registered user and currently logged in, your changes will be recorded under your Wikipedia user name. However, if you are not a registered user or are not logged on, your changes will be logged under your computer's IP address. This has two main implications. Firstly, as a registered Wikipedia user your edits are more likely seen as valuable contribution (although all edits are open to community scrutiny regardless). Secondly, if you edit under an IP address you may be sharing this IP address with other users. If your IP address has previously been blocked (due to being flagged as a source of 'vandalism') your edits will also be blocked. You can find more information on this and creating a user account at Wikipedia.
If you have problems editing a particular page, contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org and we will try to help.
The community annotation is a new facility of the Pfam web site. If you have problems editing or experience problems with these pages please contact us.
Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase Edit Wikipedia article
|3'5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase|
|PDB structures||RCSB PDB PDBe PDBsum|
|Gene Ontology||AmiGO / EGO|
3'5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (EC 18.104.22.168, cyclic 3',5'-mononucleotide phosphodiesterase, PDE, cyclic 3',5'-nucleotide phosphodiesterase, cyclic 3',5'-phosphodiesterase, 3',5'-nucleotide phosphodiesterase, 3':5'-cyclic nucleotide 5'-nucleotidohydrolase, 3',5'-cyclonucleotide phosphodiesterase, 3', 5'-cyclic nucleoside monophosphate phosphodiesterase, 3': 5'-monophosphate phosphodiesterase (cyclic CMP), cytidine 3':5'-monophosphate phosphodiesterase (cyclic CMP), cyclic 3',5-nucleotide monophosphate phosphodiesterase, nucleoside 3',5'-cyclic phosphate diesterase, nucleoside-3',5-monophosphate phosphodiesterase) are a family of phosphodiesterases. Generally, these enzymes hydrolyze some nucleoside 3’,5’-cyclic phosphate to some nucleoside 5’-phosphate. Some examples of nucleoside 3’,5’-cyclic phosphate include:
- 3',5'-cyclic AMP
- 3',5'-cyclic dAMP
- 3',5'-cyclic IMP
- 3',5'-cyclic GMP
- 3',5'-cyclic CMP
Retinal 3',5'-cGMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) is located in photoreceptor outer segments and is an important enzyme in phototransduction.
PDE in rod cells are oligomeric, made up of two heavy catalytic subunits, α (90 kDa) and β (85 kDa,) and two lighter inhibitory γ subunits (11 kDa each).
PDE in rod cells are activated by transducin. Transducin is a G protein which upon GDP/GTP exchange in the transducin α subunit catalyzed by photolyzed rhodopsin. The transducin α subunit (Tα) is released from the β and γ complex and diffuses into the cytoplasmic solution to interact and activate PDE.
 Activation by Tα
There are two proposed mechanisms for the activation of PDE. The first proposes that the two inhibitory subunits are differentially bound, sequentially removable and exchangeable between the native complex PDEαβγ2 and PDEαβ. GTP-bound-Tα removes the inihibitory γ subunits one at a time from the αβ catalytic subunits. The second and more likely mechanism states that the GTP-Tα complex binds to the γ subunits but rather than dissociating from the catalytic subunits, it stays with the PDEαβ complex. Binding of the GTP-Tα complex to the PDE γ subunits likely causes a conformational shift in the PDE, allowing better access to the site of cGMP hydrolysis on PDEαβ.
The binding site for PDE α and β subunits are likely to be in the central region of the PDE γ subunits. The C-terminal of the PDE γ subunit is likely to be involved in inhibition of PDE α and β subunits, the binding site for Tα and GTPase accelerating activity for the GTP-bound Tα.
In cones, PDE is a homodimer of alpha chains, associated with several smaller subunits. Both rod and cone PDEs catalyze the hydrolysis of cAMP or cGMP to their 5’ monophosphate form. Both enzymes also bind cGMP with high affinity. The cGMP-binding sites are located in the N-terminal half of the protein sequence, while the catalytic core resides in the C-terminal portion.
Human genes encoding proteins containing this domain include:
- PDE1A, PDE1B, PDE1B2, PDE1C, PDE2A, PDE3A, PDE3B, PDE4A, PDE4B, PDE4B5, PDE4C, PDE4D,
- PDE5A, PDE6A, PDE6B, PDE6C, PDE7A, PDE7B, PDE8A, PDE8B, PDE9A,
- PDE10A, PDE10A2, PDE11A,
- Arkinstall S, Watson SP (1994). "Opsins". The G-protein linked receptor factsbook. Boston: Academic Press. pp. 214–222. ISBN 0-12-738440-5.
- Deterre P, Bigay J, Forquet F, Robert M, Chabre M (April 1988). "cGMP phosphodiesterase of retinal rods is regulated by two inhibitory subunits". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 85 (8): 2424–8. doi:10.1073/pnas.85.8.2424. PMC 280009. PMID 2833739.
- Kroll S, Phillips WJ, Cerione RA (March 1989). "The regulation of the cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase by the GDP-bound form of the alpha subunit of transducin". J. Biol. Chem. 264 (8): 4490–7. PMID 2538446.
- Liu Y, Arshavsky VY, Ruoho AE (January 1999). "Interaction sites of the C-terminal region of the cGMP phosphodiesterase inhibitory subunit with the GDP-bound transducin alpha-subunit". Biochem. J. 337 (2): 281–8. PMC 1219963. PMID 9882626.
3'5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase Provide feedback
No Pfam abstract.
External database links
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR002073
The cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDE) comprise a group of enzymes that degrade the phosphodiester bond in the second messenger molecules cAMP and cGMP. They are divided into 11 families. They regulate the localisation, duration and amplitude of cyclic nucleotide signalling within subcellular domains. PDEs are therefore important for signal transduction.
PDE enzymes are often targets for pharmacological inhibition due to their unique tissue distribution, structural properties, and functional properties. Inhibitors include: Roflumilast for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma [PUBMED:18447606], Sildenafil for erectile dysfunction [PUBMED:18367027] and Cilostazol for peripheral arterial occlusive disease [PUBMED:18436153], amongst others.
Retinal 3',5'-cGMP phosphodiesterase is located in photoreceptor outer segments: it is light activated, playing a pivotal role in signal transduction. In rod cells, PDE is oligomeric, comprising an alpha-, a beta- and 2 gamma-subunits, while in cones, PDE is a homodimer of alpha chains, which are associated with several smaller subunits. Both rod and cone PDEs catalyse the hydrolysis of cAMP or cGMP to the corresponding nucleoside 5' monophosphates, both enzymes also binding cGMP with high affinity. The cGMP-binding sites are located in the N-terminal half of the protein sequence, while the catalytic core resides in the C-terminal portion.This entry represents the catalytic domain of PDE which is multihelical and can be divided into three subdomains.
|Molecular function||3',5'-cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterase activity (GO:0004114)|
|Biological process||signal transduction (GO:0007165)|
- the number of sequences which exhibit this architecture
a textual description of the architecture, e.g. Gla, EGF x 2, Trypsin.
This example describes an architecture with one
Gladomain, followed by two consecutive
EGFdomains, and finally a single
- the UniProt description of the protein sequence
- the number of residues in the sequence
- the Pfam graphic itself.
Loading domain graphics...
We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family:
- the curated alignment from which the HMM for the family is built
- the alignment generated by searching the sequence database using the HMM
- Representative Proteomes (RPs) at 15%, 35%, 55% and 75% co-membership thresholds
- alignment generated by searching the NCBI sequence database using the family HMM
- alignment generated by searching the metagenomics sequence database using the family HMM
You can see the alignments as HTML or in three different sequence viewers:
- Pfam viewer
- an HTML-based viewer that uses DAS to retrieve alignment fragments on request
1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available
Key: available, not generated, — not available.
Format an alignment
If you find these logos useful in your own work, please consider citing the following article:
Note: You can also download the data file for the tree.
Curation and family details
|Number in seed:||8|
|Number in full:||2707|
|Average length of the domain:||218.10 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||32 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||32.64 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 23193494 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||14|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
Weight segments by...
Change the size of the sunburst
selected sequences to HMM
a FASTA-format file
- 0 sequences
- 0 species
How the sunburst is generated
Colouring and labels
Anomalies in the taxonomy tree
Missing taxonomic levels
Unmapped species names
Too many species/sequences
The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...
You can use the tree controls to manipulate how the interactive tree is displayed:
- show/hide the summary boxes
- highlight species that are represented in the seed alignment
- expand/collapse the tree or expand it to a given depth
- select a sub-tree or a set of species within the tree and view them graphically or as an alignment
- save a plain text representation of the tree
There is 1 interaction for this family. More...
We determine these interactions using iPfam, which considers the interactions between residues in three-dimensional protein structures and maps those interactions back to Pfam families. You can find more information about the iPfam algorithm in the journal article that accompanies the website.
For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the PDEase_I domain has been found. There are 332 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein seqence.
Loading structure mapping...