Summary: Protamine P1
This is the Wikipedia entry entitled "Protamine". More...
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Protamine Edit Wikipedia article
|Locus||Chr. 16 p13.13|
|Locus||Chr. 16 p13.13|
Protamines are small, arginine-rich, nuclear proteins that replace histones late in the haploid phase of spermatogenesis and are believed essential for sperm head condensation and DNA stabilization. They may allow for denser packaging of DNA in spermatozoon than histones, but they must be decompressed before the genetic data can be used for protein synthesis. However, in humans and maybe other primates, 10-15% of the sperm's genome is packaged by histones thought to bind genes that are essential for early embryonic development.
 Medical uses
Protamine is used in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery to neutralize the anti-clotting effects of heparin. Adverse effects include increased pulmonary artery pressure and decrease peripheral blood pressure, myocardial oxygen consumption, cardiac output, and heart rate.
In gene therapy, protamine sulfate's ability to condense plasmid DNA along with its approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have made it an appealing candidate to increase transduction rates by both viral and nonviral (e.g. utilizing cationic liposomes) mediated delivery mechanisms.
Mice, humans, and certain fish have two or more different protamines, whereas the sperm of bull, boar, rat, rabbit, guinea pig, and ram have one form of protamine.
Examples of protamines from fish are:
- salmine from salmon
- clupeine from herring sperm (Clupea)
- iridine from rainbow trout
- thinnine from tunafish (Thunnus)
- stelline from starry sturgeon (Acipenser stellatus)
- scylliorhinine from dogfish (Scylliorhinus)
 Protamine structure
- Balhorn R (2007). "The protamine family of sperm nuclear proteins". Genome Biol 8 (9): 227. doi:10.1186/gb-2007-8-9-227. PMC 2375014. PMID 17903313. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2375014/.
- Owens DR (June 2011). "Insulin preparations with prolonged effect". Diabetes Technol. Ther. 13 Suppl 1: S5–14. doi:10.1089/dia.2011.0068. PMID 21668337.
- Carr JA, Silverman N (1999). "The heparin-protamine interaction. A review.". J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino) 40 (5): 659–66. PMID 10596998.
- Weiler JM, Freiman P, Sharath MD, Metzger WJ, Smith JM, Richerson HB et al. (1985). "Serious adverse reactions to protamine sulfate: are alternatives needed?". J Allergy Clin Immunol 75 (2): 297–303. doi:10.1016/0091-6749(85)90061-2. PMID 2857186.
- Byun Y, Chang LC, Lee LM, Han IS, Singh VK, Yang VC (2000). "Low molecular weight protamine: a potent but nontoxic antagonist to heparin/low molecular weight protamine". Asaio J. 46 (4): 435–9. doi:10.1097/00002480-200007000-00013. PMID 10926141.
- Kenneth Cornetta, W.French Anderson (1989). "Protamine sulfate as an effective alternative to polybrene in retroviral-mediated gene-transfer: implications for human gene therapy". Journal of Virological Methods 23 (2): 187–194. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0166093489901328.
- Sorgi, F L., et. al (1997). "Protamine sulfate enhances lipid-mediated gene transfer". Gene Therapy 4 (9): 961–968. http://www.nature.com/gt/journal/v4/n9/pdf/3300484a.pdf.
- Martins RP, Ostermeier GC, Krawetz SA (December 2004). "Nuclear matrix interactions at the human protamine domain: a working model of potentiation". J. Biol. Chem. 279 (50): 51862–8. doi:10.1074/jbc.M409415200. PMID 15452126.
- Vilfan ID, Conwell CC, Hud NV (May 2004). "Formation of native-like mammalian sperm cell chromatin with folded bull protamine". J. Biol. Chem. 279 (19): 20088–95. doi:10.1074/jbc.M312777200. PMID 14990583.
- Biegeleisen K (August 2006). "The probable structure of the protamine-DNA complex". J. Theor. Biol. 241 (3): 533–40. doi:10.1016/j.jtbi.2005.12.015. PMID 16442565.
Protamine P1 Provide feedback
No Pfam abstract.
External database links
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR000221Protamines are small, highly basic proteins, that substitute for histones in sperm chromatin during the haploid phase of spermatogenesis. They pack sperm DNA into a highly condensed, stable and inactive complex. There are two different types of mammalian protamine, called P1 and P2. P1 has been found in all species studied, while P2 is sometimes absent. There seems to be a single type of avian protamine whose sequence is closely related to that of mammalian P1 [PUBMED:2808336].
The mapping between Pfam and Gene Ontology is provided by InterPro. If you use this data please cite InterPro.
|Cellular component||nucleus (GO:0005634)|
|Molecular function||DNA binding (GO:0003677)|
|Biological process||spermatogenesis (GO:0007283)|
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Curation and family details
|Number in seed:||14|
|Number in full:||147|
|Average length of the domain:||47.40 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||74 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||96.52 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild --amino -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 23193494 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||15|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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