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8  structures 111  species 0  interactions 187  sequences 2  architectures

Family: CRF (PF00473)

Summary: Corticotropin-releasing factor family

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This is the Wikipedia entry entitled "Corticotropin-releasing factor family". More...

Corticotropin-releasing factor family Edit Wikipedia article

Corticotropin-releasing factor family
Identifiers
Symbol CRF
Pfam PF00473
InterPro IPR000187
PROSITE PDOC00442
SCOP 1goe
SUPERFAMILY 1goe

Corticotropin-releasing factor, CRF is a family of related neuropeptides in vertebrates. This family includes corticotropin-releasing hormone, urotensin-I, urocortin, and sauvagine. The family can be grouped into 2 separate paralogous lineages, with urotensin-I, urocortin and sauvagine in one group and CRH forming the other group. Urocortin and sauvagine appear to represent orthologues of fish urotensin-I in mammals and amphibians, respectively. The peptides have a variety of physiological effects on stress and anxiety, vasoregulation, thermoregulation, growth and metabolism, metamorphosis and reproduction in various species, and are all released as prohormones.[1]

Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) [2] is a hormone found mainly in the paraventricular nucleus of the mammalian hypothalamus which regulates the release of corticotropin (ACTH) from the pituitary gland. The paraventricular nucleus transports CRH to the anterior pituitary, stimulating adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) release via CRH type 1 receptors, thereby activating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) and, thus, glucocorticoid release.

CRH is evolutionary-related to a number of other active peptides. Urocortin acts in vitro to stimulate the secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone. Urotensin is found in the teleost caudal neurosecretory system and may play a role in osmoregulation and as a corticotropin-releasing factor. Urotensin-I is released from the urophysis of fish, and produces ACTH and subsequent cortisol release in vivo. The nonhormonal portion of the prohormone is thought to be the urotensin binding protein (urophysin). Sauvagine (P01144), isolated from frog skin, has a potent hypotensive and diuretic effect.

Subfamilies[edit]

Human proteins from this family[edit]

CRH; UCN;

References[edit]

  1. ^ Balment RJ, Lovejoy DA (1999). "Evolution and physiology of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) family of neuropeptides in vertebrates". Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 115 (1): 1–22. doi:10.1006/gcen.1999.7298. PMID 10375459. 
  2. ^ Lederis KP, Okawara Y, Richter D, Morley SD (1990). "Evolutionary aspects of corticotropin releasing hormones". Prog. Clin. Biol. Res. 342: 467–472. PMID 2200028. 

This article incorporates text from the public domain Pfam and InterPro IPR000187

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Literature references

  1. Romier C, Bernassau JM, Cambillau C, Darbon H; , Protein Eng 1993;6:149-156.: Solution structure of human corticotropin releasing factor by 1H NMR and distance geometry with restrained molecular dynamics. PUBMED:8386360 EPMC:8386360


Internal database links

External database links

This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.

InterPro entry IPR000187

Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), urotensin-I, urocortin and sauvagine form a family of related neuropeptides in vertebrates. The family can be grouped into 2 separate paralogous lineages, with urotensin-I, urocortin and sauvagine in one group and CRF forming the other group. Urocortin and sauvagine appear to represent orthologues of fish urotensin-I in mammals and amphibians, respectively. The peptides have a variety of physiological effects on stress and anxiety, vasoregulation, thermoregulation, growth and metabolism, metamorphosis and reproduction in various species, and are all released as preprohormones [PUBMED:10375459].

CRF [PUBMED:2200028] is a hormone found mainly in the paraventricular nucleus of the mammalian hypothalamus that regulates the release of corticotropin (ACTH) from the pituitary gland. From here, CRF is transported to the anterior pituitary, stimulating adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) release via CRF type 1 receptors, thereby activating the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis (HPA) and thus glucocorticoid release.

CRF is evolutionary related to a number of other active peptides. Urocortin acts in vitro to stimulate the secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone. Urotensin is found in the teleost caudal neurosecretory system and may play a role in osmoregulation and as a corticotropin-releasing factor. Urotensin-I is released from the urophysis of fish, and produces ACTH and subsequent cortisol release in vivo. The nonhormonal portion of the prohormone is thought to be the urotensin binding protein (urophysin). Sauvagine (SWISSPROT), isolated from frog skin, has a potent hypotensive and diuretic effect.

Gene Ontology

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Domain organisation

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Alignments

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We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family. You can see a description of each above. You can view these alignments in various ways but please note that some types of alignment are never generated while others may not be available for all families, most commonly because the alignments are too large to handle.

  Seed
(7)
Full
(187)
Representative proteomes NCBI
(192)
Meta
(0)
RP15
(11)
RP35
(19)
RP55
(37)
RP75
(64)
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Format an alignment

  Seed
(7)
Full
(187)
Representative proteomes NCBI
(192)
Meta
(0)
RP15
(11)
RP35
(19)
RP55
(37)
RP75
(64)
Alignment:
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Sequence:
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We make all of our alignments available in Stockholm format. You can download them here as raw, plain text files or as gzip-compressed files.

  Seed
(7)
Full
(187)
Representative proteomes NCBI
(192)
Meta
(0)
RP15
(11)
RP35
(19)
RP55
(37)
RP75
(64)
Raw Stockholm Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download    
Gzipped Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download    

You can also download a FASTA format file containing the full-length sequences for all sequences in the full alignment.

External links

MyHits provides a collection of tools to handle multiple sequence alignments. For example, one can refine a seed alignment (sequence addition or removal, re-alignment or manual edition) and then search databases for remote homologs using HMMER3.

Pfam alignments:

HMM logo

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Trees

This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.

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Curation and family details

This section shows the detailed information about the Pfam family. You can see the definitions of many of the terms in this section in the glossary and a fuller explanation of the scoring system that we use in the scores section of the help pages.

Curation View help on the curation process

Seed source: Prosite
Previous IDs: none
Type: Family
Author: Finn RD
Number in seed: 7
Number in full: 187
Average length of the domain: 39.40 aa
Average identity of full alignment: 47 %
Average coverage of the sequence by the domain: 25.30 %

HMM information View help on HMM parameters

HMM build commands:
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 23193494 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
Model details:
Parameter Sequence Domain
Gathering cut-off 22.1 22.1
Trusted cut-off 22.2 26.6
Noise cut-off 21.5 21.7
Model length: 39
Family (HMM) version: 12
Download: download the raw HMM for this family

Species distribution

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Structures

For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the CRF domain has been found. There are 8 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein seqence.

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