Summary: NAD-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase N-terminus
Pfam includes annotations and additional family information from a range of different sources. These sources can be accessed via the tabs below.
This is the Wikipedia entry entitled "Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase". More...
The Wikipedia text that you see displayed here is a download from Wikipedia. This means that the information we display is a copy of the information from the Wikipedia database. The button next to the article title ("Edit Wikipedia article") takes you to the edit page for the article directly within Wikipedia. You should be aware you are not editing our local copy of this information. Any changes that you make to the Wikipedia article will not be displayed here until we next download the article from Wikipedia. We currently download new content on a nightly basis.
Does Pfam agree with the content of the Wikipedia entry ?
Pfam has chosen to link families to Wikipedia articles. In some case we have created or edited these articles but in many other cases we have not made any direct contribution to the content of the article. The Wikipedia community does monitor edits to try to ensure that (a) the quality of article annotation increases, and (b) vandalism is very quickly dealt with. However, we would like to emphasise that Pfam does not curate the Wikipedia entries and we cannot guarantee the accuracy of the information on the Wikipedia page.
Editing Wikipedia articles
Before you edit for the first time
Wikipedia is a free, online encyclopedia. Although anyone can edit or contribute to an article, Wikipedia has some strong editing guidelines and policies, which promote the Wikipedia standard of style and etiquette. Your edits and contributions are more likely to be accepted (and remain) if they are in accordance with this policy.
You should take a few minutes to view the following pages:
How your contribution will be recorded
Anyone can edit a Wikipedia entry. You can do this either as a new user or you can register with Wikipedia and log on. When you click on the "Edit Wikipedia article" button, your browser will direct you to the edit page for this entry in Wikipedia. If you are a registered user and currently logged in, your changes will be recorded under your Wikipedia user name. However, if you are not a registered user or are not logged on, your changes will be logged under your computer's IP address. This has two main implications. Firstly, as a registered Wikipedia user your edits are more likely seen as valuable contribution (although all edits are open to community scrutiny regardless). Secondly, if you edit under an IP address you may be sharing this IP address with other users. If your IP address has previously been blocked (due to being flagged as a source of 'vandalism') your edits will also be blocked. You can find more information on this and creating a user account at Wikipedia.
If you have problems editing a particular page, contact us at email@example.com and we will try to help.
The community annotation is a new facility of the Pfam web site. If you have problems editing or experience problems with these pages please contact us.
Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase Edit Wikipedia article
|Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (NAD+)|
Crystallographic structure of human glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1.
|PDB structures||RCSB PDB PDBe PDBsum|
|Gene Ontology||AmiGO / EGO|
|Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (quinone)|
|PDB structures||RCSB PDB PDBe PDBsum|
|NAD-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase N-terminus|
crystal structure of the n-(1-d-carboxylethyl)-l-norvaline dehydrogenase from arthrobacter sp. strain 1c
|NAD-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase C-terminus|
structure of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from archaeoglobus fulgidus
Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase serves as a major link between carbohydrate metabolism and lipid metabolism. It is also a major contributor of electrons to the electron transport chain in the mitochondria.
Older terms for glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase include alpha glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (alphaGPDH) and glycerolphosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH). However, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase is not the same as glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), whose substrate is an aldehyde not an alcohol.
 Metabolic Function
GPDH plays a major role in lipid biosynthesis. Through the reduction of dihydroxyacetone phosphate into glycerol 3-phosphate, GPDH allows the prompt dephosphorylation of glycerol 3-phosphate into glycerol. Additionally, GPDH is responsible for maintaining the redox potential across the inner mitochondrial membrane in glycolysis.
The NAD+/NADH coenzyme couple act as an electron reservoir for metabolic redox reactions, carrying electrons from one reaction to another. Most of these metabolism reactions occur in the mitochondria. To regenerate NAD+ for further use, NADH pools in the cytosol must be reoxidized. Since the mitochondrial inner membrane is impermeable to both NADH and NAD+, these cannot be freely exchanged between the cytosol and mitochondrial matrix.
One way to shuttle this reducing equivalent across the membrane is through the Glycerol-3-phosphate shuttle, which employs the two forms of GPDH:
- Cytosolic GPDH, or GPD1 is located in the mitochondrial inner-membrane space or cytosol, and catalyzes the reduction of dihydroxyacetone phosphate into glycerol-3-phosphate.
- In conjunction, Mitochondrial GPDH, or GPD2 is embedded on the outer surface the inner mitochondrial membrane, overlooking the cytosol, and catalyzes the oxidation of glycerol-3-phosphate to dihydroxyacetone phosphate.
The reactions catalyzed by cytosolic (soluble) and mitochondrial GPDH are as follows:
There are two forms of GPDH:
|EC number||Name||Donor / Acceptor||Name||Subcellular location||Abbreviation||Name||Symbol|
|184.108.40.206||glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase||NADH / NAD+||Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase [NAD+]||cytoplasmic||GPDH-C||glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 (soluble)||GPD1|
|220.127.116.11||glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase||quinol / quinone||Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase||mitochondrial||GPDH-M||glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 2 (mitochondrial)||GPD2|
The following human genes encode proteins with GPDH enzymatic activity:
Cytosolic Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD1), is an NAD+-dependent enzyme that reduces dihydroxyacetone phosphate to glycerol-3-phosphate. Simultaneously, NADH is oxidized to NAD+ in the following reaction:
As a result, NAD+ is regenerated for further metabolic activity.
Figure 4. The putative active site. The phosphate group of DHAP is half-encircled by the side-chain of Arg269, and interacts with Arg269 and Gly268 directly by hydrogen bonds (not shown). The conserved residues Lys204, Asn205, Asp260 and Thr264 form a stable hydrogen bonding network. The other hydrogen bonding network includes residues Lys120 and Asp260, as well as an ordered water molecule (with a B-factor of 16.4 Å2), which hydrogen bonds to Gly149 and Asn151 (not shown). In these two electrostatic networks, only the ε-NH3+ group of Lys204 is the nearest to the C2 atom of DHAP (3.4 Å).
Mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD2), catalyzes the irreversible oxidation of glycerol-3-phosphate to dihydroxyacetone phosphate and concomitantly transfers two electrons from FAD to the electron transport chain. GPD2 consists of 4 identical subunits.
 Response to Environmental Stresses
- Studies indicate that GPDH is mostly unaffected by pH changes: neither GPD1 or GPD2 is favored under certain pH conditions.
- At high salt concentrations (E.g. NaCl), GPD1 activity is enhanced over GPD2, since an increase in the salinity of the medium leads to an accumulation of glycerol in response.
- Changes in temperature do not appear to favor neither GPD1 nor GPD2.
 Glycerol-3-phosphate shuttle
The cytosolic together with the mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase work in concert. Oxidation of cytoplasmic NADH by the cytosolic form of the enzyme creates glycerol-3-phosphate from dihydroxyacetone phosphate. Once the glycerol-3-phosphate has moved through the inner mitochondrial membrane it can then be oxidised by a separate isoform of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase that uses quinone as an oxidant and FAD as a co-factor. As a result there is a net loss in energy, comparable to one molecule of ATP.
 Role in Disease
- Enhanced GPDH activity, particularly GPD2, leads to an increase in glycerol production. Since glycerol is a main subunit in lipid metabolism, its abundance can easily lead to an increase in triglyceride accumulation at a cellular level. As a result, there is a tendency to form adipose tissue leading to an accumulation of fat that favors obesity.
- GPDH has also been found to play a role in Brugada syndrome. Mutations in the gene encoding GPD1 have been proven to cause defects in the electron transport chain. This conflict with NAD+/NADH levels in the cell is believed to contribute to defects in cardiac sodium ion channel regulation and can lead to a lethal arrythmia during infancy.
 See also
- substrate pages: glycerol 3-phosphate, dihydroxyacetone phosphate
- related topics: glycerol phosphate shuttle, creatine kinase, glycolysis, gluconeogenesis
- PDB 1X0V; Ou X, Ji C, Han X, Zhao X, Li X, Mao Y, Wong LL, Bartlam M, Rao Z (March 2006). "Crystal structures of human glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 (GPD1)". J. Mol. Biol. 357 (3): 858–69. doi:10.1016/j.jmb.2005.12.074. PMID 16460752.
- Ou, Xianjin; Ji Chaoneng, Han Xueqing, Zhao Xiaodong, Li Xuemei, Mao Yumin, Wong Luet-Lok, Bartlam Mark, Rao Zihe (31). "Crystal Structures of Human Glycerol 3-phosphate Dehydrogenase 1 (GPD1)". Journal of Molecular Biology 357 (3): 858–869. doi:10.1016/j.jmb.2005.12.074. PMID 16460752. Retrieved 14 May 2011.
- Harding Jr., Joseph W.; Pyeritz, Eric A.; Copeland, Eric S.; White III, Harold B. (1975). "Role of Glycerol 3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase in Glyceride Metabolism - Effect of Diet on Enzyme Activities in Chicken Liver". Biochem Journal 146: 223–229.
- Geertman, Jan-Maarten A.; van Maris, Antonius J.A.; van Dijken, Johannes P.; Rronk, Jack T. (November 2006). "Physiological and genetic engineering of cytosolic redox metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for improved glycerol production". Metabolic Engineering 8 (6): 532–542. doi:10.1016/j.ymben.2006.06.004. PMID 16891140. Retrieved 14 May 2011.
- Ansell, Ricky; Granath, Katarina ; Hohmann, Stefan ; Thevelein, Johan M. and Adler, Lennart (14). "The two isoenzymes for yeast NAD+-dependent glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase encoded by GPD1 and GPD2 have distinct roles in osmoadaptation and redox regulation". The EMBO Journal 16 (9): 2179–2187. doi:10.1093/emboj/16.9.2179. PMC 1169820. PMID 9171333. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
- Kota, Venkatesh; Rai, Priyanka; Weitzel, Joachim m.; Middendorff, Ralf; Bhande, Satish S.; Shivaji, Sisinthy (2). "Role of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 2 in mouse sperm capacitation". Molecular Reproduction and Development 77 (9): 773–783. doi:10.1002/mrd.21218/full. PMID 20602492.
- Stryer, Lubert; Berg, Jeremy Mark; Tymoczko, John L. (2002). "Chapter 18.5: Glycerol 3-Phosphate Shuttle". Biochemistry. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman. ISBN 0-7167-4684-0.
- Guindalini, Camila; Lee, Kil S.; Andersen, Monica L.; Santos-Silva, Rogerio; Bittencourt, Lia Rita A. and Tufik, Sergio (2010). "The influence of obstructive sleep apnea on the expression of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase1 gene". Experimental Biology and Medicine 235 (1): 52–56. doi:10.1258/ebm.2009.009150. PMID 20404019.
- Bunoust, Odile; Devin, Anne; Averet, Nicole; Camougrand, Nadine and Rigoulet, Michel (4). "Competition of Electrons to Enter the Respiratory Chain: A New Regulatory Mechanism of Oxidative Metabolism in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 280 (5): 3407–3413. doi:10.1074/jbc.M407746200. PMID 15557339. Retrieved 16 May 2011.
- Kota, Venkatesh; Dhople, Vishnu M. and Shivaji, Sisinthy (2009). "Tyrosine phosphoproteome of hamster spermatozoa: Role of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 2 in sperm capacitation". Proteomics 9 (7): 1809–1826. doi:10.1002/pmic.200800519. PMID 200800519.
- Kuzin, A.P. "X-Ray structure of the glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from Bacillus halodurans complexed with FAD. Northeast Structural Genomics Consortium target BhR167.". www.pdb.org. Retrieved 16 May 2011.
- Kumar, Sawan; Kalyanasundaram, Gayathiri T. and Gummadi, Sathyanarayana N. (20). "Differential Response of the Catalase, Superoxide Dismutase and Glycerol-3-phosphate Dehydrogenase to Different Environmental Stresses in Debaryomyces nepalensis NCYC 3413". Journal of industrial microbiology & biotechnology.
- Xu, S.P; Mao, X.Y.; Ren, F.Z. and Che, H.L. (2011). "attenuating effect of casein glycomacropeptide on proliferation, differentiation, and lipid accumulation of in vitro Sprague-Dawley rat preadipocytes". Journal of Dairy Science 94 (2): 676–683. doi:10.3168/jds.2010-3827. PMID 21257036.
- Van Norstrand, David W.; Validivia, Carmen R.; Tester, David J; Ueda, Kazuo; London, Barry; Makielski, Jonthan C and Ackerman, michael J. (14). "Molecular and Functional Characterization of Novel Glycerol-3-Phosphate Dehydroogenase 1 like Gene (GPD1-L) Mutations in Sudden Infant Death Syndrome". Journal of the American Heart Association 116 (20): 2253–9. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.107.704627. PMID 17967976. Retrieved 18 May 2011.
- Suresh S, Turley S, Opperdoes FR, Michels PA, Hol WG (May 2000). "A potential target enzyme for trypanocidal drugs revealed by the crystal structure of NAD-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from Leishmania mexicana". Structure 8 (5): 541–52. PMID 10801498.
 Further reading
- Baranowski T (1963). "α-Glycerophosphate dehydrogenase". In Boyer PD, Lardy H, Myrbäck K. The Enzymes (2nd ed.). New York: Academic Press. pp. 85–96.
- Brosemer RW, Kuhn RW (May 1969). "Comparative structural properties of honeybee and rabbit α-glycerophosphate dehydrogenases". Biochemistry 8 (5): 2095–105. doi:10.1021/bi00833a047. PMID 4307630.
- O'Brien SJ, MacIntyre RJ (October 1972). "The -glycerophosphate cycle in Drosophila melanogaster. I. Biochemical and developmental aspects". Biochem. Genet. 7 (2): 141–61. doi:10.1007/BF00486085. PMID 4340553.
- Warkentin DL, Fondy TP (July 1973). "Isolation and characterization of cytoplasmic L-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from rabbit-renal-adipose tissue and its comparison with the skeletal-muscle enzyme". Eur. J. Biochem. 36 (1): 97–109. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1973.tb02889.x. PMID 4200180.
- Albertyn J, van Tonder A, Prior BA (August 1992). "Purification and characterization of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae". FEBS Lett. 308 (2): 130–2. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(92)81259-O. PMID 1499720.
- Koekemoer TC, Litthauer D, Oelofsen W (June 1995). "Isolation and characterization of adipose tissue glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase". Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 27 (6): 625–32. doi:10.1016/1357-2725(95)00012-E. PMID 7671141.
- Pahlman, Inga-lill; Larsson, Christer; Averet, Nicole; Bunoust, Odile; Boubekeur, Samira; Gustafsson, Lena and Rigoulet, Michel (2). "Kinetic Regulation of the Mitochondrial Glycerol-3-phosphate Dehydrogenase by the External NADH Dehydrogenase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 277 (31): 27991–27995. doi:10.1074/jbc.M204079200. PMID 12032156.
- Overkamp, Karin M.; Bakker, Barbara M.; Kotter, Peter; van Tuijl, Arjen; de Vries, Simon; van Dijken, Johannes P. and Pronk, Jack T. (May 2000). "In Vivo Analysis of the Mechanisms for Oxidation of Cytosolic NADH by Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mitochondria". Journal of Bacteriology 182 (10): 2823–2830. doi:10.1128/JB.182.10.2823-2830.2000. PMC 101991. PMID 10781551. Retrieved 16 May 2011.
- Dawson, Anthony G.; Cooney, Gregory J. (July 1978). "RECONSTRUCTION OF THE wGLYCEROLPHOSPHATE SHUTTLE USING RAT KIDNEY MITOCHONDRIA". Febs Letters 91 (2): 169–172. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(78)81164-8. PMID 210038.
- Opperdoes, Fred R.; Borst, Piet; Bakker, Suzanne and Leene, Wolter (18). "Localization of Glycerol-3-Phosphate Oxidase in the Mitochondrion and Particulate NAD+-Linked Glycerol-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase in the Microbodies of the Bloodstream Form of Trypanosoma brucei". European Journal of Biochemistry 76 (1): 29–39. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1977.tb11567.x. PMID 142010.
- Eswaramoorthy, Subramaniam; Bonanno, Jeffrey B.; Burley, Stephen K. and Swaminathan, Subramanyam (15). "Mechanism of action of a flavin-containing monooxygenase". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103 (26): 9832–9837. doi:10.1073/pnas.0602398103. PMC 1502539. PMID 16777962. Retrieved 16 May 2011.
- equivalent entries:
- Yeast genome database GO term: GPDH
- enzyme no. -2053504966 at GPnotebook
This tab holds the annotation information that is stored in the Pfam database. As we move to using Wikipedia as our main source of annotation, the contents of this tab will be gradually replaced by the Wikipedia tab.
NAD-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase N-terminus Provide feedback
NAD-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) catalyses the interconversion of dihydroxyacetone phosphate and L-glycerol-3-phosphate. This family represents the N-terminal NAD-binding domain .
Pahlman IL, Larsson C, Averet N, Bunoust O, Boubekeur S, Gustafsson L, Rigoulet M; , J Biol Chem 2002;277:27991-27995.: Kinetic regulation of the mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase by the external NADH dehydrogenase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PUBMED:12032156 EPMC:12032156
Suresh S, Turley S, Opperdoes FR, Michels PA, Hol WG; , Structure Fold Des 2000;8:541-552.: A potential target enzyme for trypanocidal drugs revealed by the crystal structure of NAD-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from Leishmania mexicana. PUBMED:10801498 EPMC:10801498
External database links
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR011128NAD-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) catalyses the interconversion of dihydroxyacetone phosphate and L-glycerol-3-phosphate. This family represents the N-terminal NAD-binding domain [PUBMED:10801498].
The mapping between Pfam and Gene Ontology is provided by InterPro. If you use this data please cite InterPro.
|Cellular component||cytoplasm (GO:0005737)|
|Molecular function||oxidoreductase activity, acting on the CH-OH group of donors, NAD or NADP as acceptor (GO:0016616)|
|NAD binding (GO:0051287)|
|Biological process||glycerol-3-phosphate catabolic process (GO:0046168)|
|oxidation-reduction process (GO:0055114)|
Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...
The graphic that is shown by default represents the longest sequence with a given architecture. Each row contains the following information:
- the number of sequences which exhibit this architecture
a textual description of the architecture, e.g. Gla, EGF x 2, Trypsin.
This example describes an architecture with one
Gladomain, followed by two consecutive
EGFdomains, and finally a single
- a link to the page in the Pfam site showing information about the sequence that the graphic describes
- the UniProt description of the protein sequence
- the number of residues in the sequence
- the Pfam graphic itself.
Note that you can see the family page for a particular domain by clicking on the graphic. You can also choose to see all sequences which have a given architecture by clicking on the Show link in each row.
Finally, because some families can be found in a very large number of architectures, we load only the first fifty architectures by default. If you want to see more architectures, click the button at the bottom of the page to load the next set.
Loading domain graphics...
We store a range of different sequence alignments for families. As well as the seed alignment from which the family is built, we provide the full alignment, generated by searching the sequence database using the family HMM. We also generate alignments using four representative proteomes (RP) sets, the NCBI sequence database, and our metagenomics sequence database. More...
There are various ways to view or download the sequence alignments that we store. We provide several sequence viewers and a plain-text Stockholm-format file for download.
We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family:
- the curated alignment from which the HMM for the family is built
- the alignment generated by searching the sequence database using the HMM
- Representative Proteomes (RPs) at 15%, 35%, 55% and 75% co-membership thresholds
- alignment generated by searching the NCBI sequence database using the family HMM
- alignment generated by searching the metagenomics sequence database using the family HMM
You can see the alignments as HTML or in three different sequence viewers:
- a Java applet developed at the University of Dundee. You will need Java installed before running jalview
- an HTML page showing the whole alignment.Please note: full Pfam alignments can be very large. These HTML views are extremely large and often cause problems for browsers. Please use either jalview or the Pfam viewer if you have trouble viewing the HTML version
- an HTML-based representation of the alignment, coloured according to the posterior-probability (PP) values from the HMM. As for the standard HTML view, heatmap alignments can also be very large and slow to render.
- Pfam viewer
- an HTML-based viewer that uses DAS to retrieve alignment fragments on request
You can download (or view in your browser) a text representation of a Pfam alignment in various formats:
You can also change the order in which sequences are listed in the alignment, change how insertions are represented, alter the characters that are used to represent gaps in sequences and, finally, choose whether to download the alignment or to view it in your browser directly.
You may find that large alignments cause problems for the viewers and the reformatting tool, so we also provide all alignments in Stockholm format. You can download either the plain text alignment, or a gzipped version of it.
We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family. You can see a description of each above. You can view these alignments in various ways but please note that some types of alignment are never generated while others may not be available for all families, most commonly because the alignments are too large to handle.
1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available
Key: available, not generated, — not available.
Format an alignment
We make all of our alignments available in Stockholm format. You can download them here as raw, plain text files or as gzip-compressed files.
You can also download a FASTA format file containing the full-length sequences for all sequences in the full alignment.
MyHits provides a collection of tools to handle multiple sequence alignments. For example, one can refine a seed alignment (sequence addition or removal, re-alignment or manual edition) and then search databases for remote homologs using HMMER3.
HMM logos is one way of visualising profile HMMs. Logos provide a quick overview of the properties of an HMM in a graphical form. You can see a more detailed description of HMM logos and find out how you can interpret them here. More...
If you find these logos useful in your own work, please consider citing the following article:
This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.
Note: You can also download the data file for the tree.
Curation and family details
This section shows the detailed information about the Pfam family. You can see the definitions of many of the terms in this section in the glossary and a fuller explanation of the scoring system that we use in the scores section of the help pages.
|Author:||Finn RD, Bateman A, Moxon SJ|
|Number in seed:||44|
|Number in full:||5998|
|Average length of the domain:||150.50 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||28 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||44.49 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 23193494 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||18|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
Weight segments by...
Change the size of the sunburst
selected sequences to HMM
a FASTA-format file
- 0 sequences
- 0 species
This visualisation provides a simple graphical representation of the distribution of this family across species. You can find the original interactive tree in the More....
This chart is a modified "sunburst" visualisation of the species tree for this family. It shows each node in the tree as a separate arc, arranged radially with the superkingdoms at the centre and the species arrayed around the outermost ring.
How the sunburst is generated
The tree is built by considering the taxonomic lineage of each sequence that has a match to this family. For each node in the resulting tree, we draw an arc in the sunburst. The radius of the arc, its distance from the root node at the centre of the sunburst, shows the taxonomic level ("superkingdom", "kingdom", etc). The length of the arc represents either the number of sequences represented at a given level, or the number of species that are found beneath the node in the tree. The weighting scheme can be changed using the sunburst controls.
In order to reduce the complexity of the representation, we reduce the number of taxonomic levels that we show. We consider only the following eight major taxonomic levels:
Colouring and labels
Segments of the tree are coloured approximately according to their superkingdom. For example, archeal branches are coloured with shades of orange, eukaryotes in shades of purple, etc. The colour assignments are shown under the sunburst controls. Where space allows, the name of the taxonomic level will be written on the arc itself.
As you move your mouse across the sunburst, the current node will be highlighted. In the top section of the controls panel we show a summary of the lineage of the currently highlighed node. If you pause over an arc, a tooltip will be shown, giving the name of the taxonomic level in the title and a summary of the number of sequences and species below that node in the tree.
Anomalies in the taxonomy tree
There are some situations that the sunburst tree cannot easily handle and for which we have work-arounds in place.
Missing taxonomic levels
Some species in the taxonomic tree may not have one or more of the main eight levels that we display. For example, Bos taurus is not assigned an order in the NCBI taxonomic tree. In such cases we mark the omitted level with, for example, "No order", in both the tooltip and the lineage summary.
Unmapped species names
The tree is built by looking at each sequence in the full alignment for the family. We take the name of the species given by UniProt and try to map that to the full taxonomic tree from NCBI. In some cases, the name chosen by UniProt does not map to any node in the NCBI tree, perhaps because the chosen name is listed as a synonym or a misspelling in the NCBI taxonomy.
So that these nodes are not simply omitted from the sunburst tree, we group them together in a separate branch (or segment of the sunburst tree). Since we cannot determine the lineage for these unmapped species, we show all levels between the superkingdom and the species as "uncategorised".
Since we reduce the species tree to only the eight main taxonomic levels, sequences that are mapped to the sub-species level in the tree would not normally be shown. Rather than leave out these species, we map them instead to their parent species. So, for example, for sequences belonging to one of the Vibrio cholerae sub-species in the NCBI taxonomy, we show them instead as belonging to the species Vibrio cholerae.
Too many species/sequences
For large species trees, you may see blank regions in the outer layers of the sunburst. These occur when there are large numbers of arcs to be drawn in a small space. If an arc is less than approximately one pixel wide, it will not be drawn and the space will be left blank. You may still be able to get some information about the species in that region by moving your mouse across the area, but since each arc will be very small, it will be difficult to accurately locate a particular species.
The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...
We show the species tree in one of two ways. For smaller trees we try to show an interactive representation, which allows you to select specific nodes in the tree and view them as an alignment or as a set of Pfam domain graphics.
Unfortunately we have found that there are problems viewing the interactive tree when the it becomes larger than a certain limit. Furthermore, we have found that Internet Explorer can become unresponsive when viewing some trees, regardless of their size. We therefore show a text representation of the species tree when the size is above a certain limit or if you are using Internet Explorer to view the site.
If you are using IE you can still load the interactive tree by clicking the "Generate interactive tree" button, but please be aware of the potential problems that the interactive species tree can cause.
For all of the domain matches in a full alignment, we count the number that are found on all sequences in the alignment. This total is shown in the purple box.
We also count the number of unique sequences on which each domain is found, which is shown in green. Note that a domain may appear multiple times on the same sequence, leading to the difference between these two numbers.
Finally, we group sequences from the same organism according to the NCBI code that is assigned by UniProt, allowing us to count the number of distinct sequences on which the domain is found. This value is shown in the pink boxes.
We use the NCBI species tree to group organisms according to their taxonomy and this forms the structure of the displayed tree. Note that in some cases the trees are too large (have too many nodes) to allow us to build an interactive tree, but in most cases you can still view the tree in a plain text, non-interactive representation. Those species which are represented in the seed alignment for this domain are highlighted.
You can use the tree controls to manipulate how the interactive tree is displayed:
- show/hide the summary boxes
- highlight species that are represented in the seed alignment
- expand/collapse the tree or expand it to a given depth
- select a sub-tree or a set of species within the tree and view them graphically or as an alignment
- save a plain text representation of the tree
Please note: for large trees this can take some time. While the tree is loading, you can safely switch away from this tab but if you browse away from the family page entirely, the tree will not be loaded.
There are 3 interactions for this family. More...
We determine these interactions using iPfam, which considers the interactions between residues in three-dimensional protein structures and maps those interactions back to Pfam families. You can find more information about the iPfam algorithm in the journal article that accompanies the website.
For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the NAD_Gly3P_dh_N domain has been found. There are 27 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein seqence.
Loading structure mapping...