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4  structures 16  species 1  interaction 18  sequences 2  architectures

Family: Melittin (PF01372)

Summary: Melittin

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Melittin Provide feedback

No Pfam abstract.

Literature references

  1. Terwilliger TC, Eisenberg D; , J Biol Chem 1982;257:6016-6022.: The structure of melittin. II. Interpretation of the structure. PUBMED:7076662 EPMC:7076662


External database links

This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.

InterPro entry IPR002116

Allergies are hypersensitivity reactions of the immune system to specific substances called allergens (such as pollen, stings, drugs, or food) that, in most people, result in no symptoms. A nomenclature system has been established for antigens (allergens) that cause IgE-mediated atopic allergies in humans [WHO/IUIS Allergen Nomenclature Subcommittee King T.P., Hoffmann D., Loewenstein H., Marsh D.G., Platts-Mills T.A.E., Thomas W. Bull. World Health Organ. 72:797-806(1994)]. This nomenclature system is defined by a designation that is composed of the first three letters of the genus; a space; the first letter of the species name; a space and an Arabic number. In the event that two species names have identical designations, they are discriminated from one another by adding one or more letters (as necessary) to each species designation.

The allergens in this family include allergens with the following designations: Api m 3.

Melittin is the principal protein component of the venom of the honeybee, Apis mellifera. It inhibits protein kinase C, Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, myosin light chain kinase and Na+/K+-ATPase (synaptosomal membrane) and is a cell membrane lytic factor. Melittin is a small peptide with no disulphide bridge; the N-terminal part of the molecule is predominantly hydrophobic and the C-terminal part is hydrophilic and strongly basic.

The molecular mechanisms underlying the various effects of melittin on membranes have not been completely defined and much of the evidence indicates that different molecular mechanisms may underlie different actions of the peptide [PUBMED:2187536].

Extensive work with melittin has shown that the venom has multiple effects, probably, as a result of its interaction with negatively changed phospholipids. It inhibits well known transport pumps such as the Na+-K+-ATPase and the H+-K+-ATPase. Melittin increases the permeability of cell membranes to ions, particularly Na+ and indirectly Ca2+, because of the Na+-Ca2+-exchange. This effect results in marked morphological and functional changes, particularly in excitable tissues such as cardiac myocytes. In some other tissues, e.g., cornea, not only Na+ but Cl- permeability is also increased by melittin. Similar effects to melittin on H+-K+-ATPase have been found with the synthetic amphipathic polypeptide Trp-3 [PUBMED:10072885].

The study of melittin in model membranes has been useful for the development of methodology for determination of membrane protein structures. A molecular dynamics simulation of melittin in a hydrated dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayer was carried out. The effect of melittin on the surrounding membrane was localised to its immediate vicinity, and its asymmetry with respect to the two layers may be a result of the fact that it is not fully transmembranal. Melittin's hydrophilic C terminus anchors it at the extracellular interface, leaving the N terminus "loose" in the lower layer of the membrane [PUBMED:10692322].

Gene Ontology

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Domain organisation

Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...

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Alignments

We store a range of different sequence alignments for families. As well as the seed alignment from which the family is built, we provide the full alignment, generated by searching the sequence database using the family HMM. We also generate alignments using four representative proteomes (RP) sets, the NCBI sequence database, and our metagenomics sequence database. More...

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We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family. You can see a description of each above. You can view these alignments in various ways but please note that some types of alignment are never generated while others may not be available for all families, most commonly because the alignments are too large to handle.

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(3)
Full
(18)
Representative proteomes NCBI
(33)
Meta
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(1)
RP35
(1)
RP55
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RP75
(1)
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1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available

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  Seed
(3)
Full
(18)
Representative proteomes NCBI
(33)
Meta
(0)
RP15
(1)
RP35
(1)
RP55
(1)
RP75
(1)
Alignment:
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We make all of our alignments available in Stockholm format. You can download them here as raw, plain text files or as gzip-compressed files.

  Seed
(3)
Full
(18)
Representative proteomes NCBI
(33)
Meta
(0)
RP15
(1)
RP35
(1)
RP55
(1)
RP75
(1)
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You can also download a FASTA format file containing the full-length sequences for all sequences in the full alignment.

External links

MyHits provides a collection of tools to handle multiple sequence alignments. For example, one can refine a seed alignment (sequence addition or removal, re-alignment or manual edition) and then search databases for remote homologs using HMMER3.

Pfam alignments:

HMM logo

HMM logos is one way of visualising profile HMMs. Logos provide a quick overview of the properties of an HMM in a graphical form. You can see a more detailed description of HMM logos and find out how you can interpret them here. More...

Trees

This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.

Note: You can also download the data file for the tree.

Curation and family details

This section shows the detailed information about the Pfam family. You can see the definitions of many of the terms in this section in the glossary and a fuller explanation of the scoring system that we use in the scores section of the help pages.

Curation View help on the curation process

Seed source: SCOP
Previous IDs: none
Type: Family
Author: Bateman A
Number in seed: 3
Number in full: 18
Average length of the domain: 24.20 aa
Average identity of full alignment: 71 %
Average coverage of the sequence by the domain: 40.82 %

HMM information View help on HMM parameters

HMM build commands:
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 23193494 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
Model details:
Parameter Sequence Domain
Gathering cut-off 20.6 20.6
Trusted cut-off 21.1 25.9
Noise cut-off 19.7 20.5
Model length: 26
Family (HMM) version: 12
Download: download the raw HMM for this family

Species distribution

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Interactions

There is 1 interaction for this family. More...

Melittin

Structures

For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the Melittin domain has been found. There are 4 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein seqence.

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