Summary: DHHC palmitoyltransferase
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DHHC domain Edit Wikipedia article
|A depiction of the topology of DHHC family palmitoyltransferases. Transmembrane alpha helices are represented as black tubes. The DHHC domain is shown as a light orange oval.|
In molecular biology the DHHC domain is a protein domain that acts as an enzyme, which adds a palmitoyl chemical group to proteins in order to anchor them to cell membranes. The DHHC domain was discovered in 1999 and named after a conserved sequence motif found in its protein sequence. Roth and colleagues showed that the yeast Akr1p protein could palmitoylate Yck2p in vitro and inferred that the DHHC domain defined a large family of palmitoyltransferases. In mammals twenty three members of this family have been identified and their substrate specificities investigated. Some members of the family such as ZDHHC3 and ZDHHC7 enhance palmitoylation of proteins such as PSD-95, SNAP-25, GAP43, Gαs. Others such as ZDHHC9 showed specificity only toward the H-Ras protein. However, a recent study questions the involvement of classical enzyme-substrate recognition and specificity in the palmitoylation reaction. Several members of the family have been implicated in human diseases.
 Sequence motifs
Conserved motifs within protein sequences point towards the most important amino acid residues for function. In the DHHC domain there is a tetrapeptide motif composed of aspartate-histidine-histidine-cysteine. However this short sequence is embedded in a larger region of about fifty amino acids in length that shares many more conserved amino acids. The canonical DHHC domain can be described with the following sequence motif:
However many examples of DHHC domains are known that do not contain all these conserved residues. In addition to the central DHHC domain three further sequence motifs have been identified in members of the DHHC family. A DPG (aspartate-proline-glycine) motif has been identified just to the C-terminus of the second transmembrane region. A TTxE (threonine-threonine-any-glutamate) motif has also been identified after the fourth transmembrane helix. A third motif towards the C-terminus of many proteins has been identified that contains a conserved aromatic amino acid, a glycine and an asparagine called the PaCCT motif (PAlmitoiltransferase Conserved C-Terminus motif).
 Chemical inhibitors
In 2006, five chemical classes of small molecules were discovered which were shown to act against palmitoyltransferases. Further studies in 2009 showed that of the 5 classes studied, 2-(2-hydroxy-5-nitro-benzylidene)-benzo[b]thiophen-3-one was shown to behave similarly to 2-Bromopalmitate and were identified as able to inhibit the palmitoylation reaction of a range of DHHC domain containing proteins. Inhibition with 2-Bromopalmitate was found to be irreversible, the other however was found to be mostly reversible. Because of the roles of DHHC domain proteins in human diseases it has been suggested that chemical inhibitors of specific DHHC proteins may be a potential route to treatment of disease.
 In human disease
Several proteins containing DHHC domains have been implicated in human disease. Two missense mutations within the DHHC domain of ZDHHC9 were identified in X-linked mental retardation associated with a Marfanoid Habitus. A potential link of ZDHHC11 with bladder cancer has been suggested by the discovery that 5 out of 9 high-grade bladder cancer samples surveyed contained a duplication of the 5p15.33 genomic region. However, this region contains another gene TPPP which may be the causative gene. The HIP14 palmitoyltransferase is responsible for palmitoylating the Huntingtin protein. Expansions of the triplet repeat in the huntington's gene leads to loss of interaction with HIP14 which Yanai and colleagues speculate is involved in the pathology of Huntington's disease. A gene knockout experiment of the mouse homologue of ZDHHC13 showed hair loss, severe osteoporosis, and systemic amyloidosis, both of AL and AA depositions.
 See also
- Putilina T, Wong P, Gentleman S (May 1999). "The DHHC domain: a new highly conserved cysteine-rich motif". Mol. Cell. Biochem. 195 (1–2): 219–26. doi:10.1023/A:1006932522197. PMID 10395086.
- Roth AF, Feng Y, Chen L, Davis NG (October 2002). "The yeast DHHC cysteine-rich domain protein Akr1p is a palmitoyl transferase". J. Cell Biol. 159 (1): 23–8. doi:10.1083/jcb.200206120. PMC 2173492. PMID 12370247. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2173492/.
- Fukata Y, Iwanaga T, Fukata M (October 2006). "Systematic screening for palmitoyl transferase activity of the DHHC protein family in mammalian cells". Methods 40 (2): 177–82. doi:10.1016/j.ymeth.2006.05.015. PMID 17012030.
- Rocks O, Gerauer M, Vartak N, et al. (April 2010). "The palmitoylation machinery is a spatially organizing system for peripheral membrane proteins". Cell 141 (3): 458–71. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2010.04.007. PMID 20416930.
- Mitchell DA, Vasudevan A, Linder ME, Deschenes RJ (June 2006). "Protein palmitoylation by a family of DHHC protein S-acyltransferases". J. Lipid Res. 47 (6): 1118–27. doi:10.1194/jlr.R600007-JLR200. PMID 16582420.
- González Montoro A, Quiroga R, Maccioni HJ, Valdez Taubas J (April 2009). "A novel motif at the C-terminus of palmitoyltransferases is essential for Swf1 and Pfa3 function in vivo". Biochem. J. 419 (2): 301–8. doi:10.1042/BJ20080921. PMID 19138168.
- Stober R (June 1987). "[Total or subtotal amputation of a long finger with destruction of the metacarpophalangeal joint--regaining function by replantation?]" (in German). Aktuelle Traumatol 17 (3): 100–4. PMID 2888271.
- Jennings BC, Nadolski MJ, Ling Y, et al. (February 2009). "2-Bromopalmitate and 2-(2-hydroxy-5-nitro-benzylidene)-benzobthiophen-3-one inhibit DHHC-mediated palmitoylation in vitro". J. Lipid Res. 50 (2): 233–42. doi:10.1194/jlr.M800270-JLR200. PMC 2636914. PMID 18827284. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2636914/.
- Raymond FL, Tarpey PS, Edkins S, et al. (May 2007). "Mutations in ZDHHC9, Which Encodes a Palmitoyltransferase of NRAS and HRAS, Cause X-Linked Mental Retardation Associated with a Marfanoid Habitus". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 80 (5): 982–7. doi:10.1086/513609. PMC 1852737. PMID 17436253. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1852737/.
- Yamamoto Y, Chochi Y, Matsuyama H, et al. (2007). "Gain of 5p15.33 is associated with progression of bladder cancer". Oncology 72 (1–2): 132–8. doi:10.1159/111132. PMID 18025801.
- Yanai A, Huang K, Kang R, et al. (June 2006). "Palmitoylation of huntingtin by HIP14 is essential for its trafficking and function". Nat. Neurosci. 9 (6): 824–31. doi:10.1038/nn1702. PMC 2279235. PMID 16699508. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2279235/.
- Saleem AN, Chen YH, Baek HJ, et al. (2010). MacDonald, Marcy E.. ed. "Mice with Alopecia, Osteoporosis, and Systemic Amyloidosis Due to Mutation in Zdhhc13, a Gene Coding for Palmitoyl Acyltransferase". PLoS Genet. 6 (6): e1000985. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1000985. PMC 2883605. PMID 20548961. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2883605/.
 Further reading
- Greaves J, Gorleku OA, Salaun C, Chamberlain LH (August 2010). "Palmitoylation of the SNAP25 Protein Family: SPECIFICITY AND REGULATION BY DHHC PALMITOYL TRANSFERASES". J. Biol. Chem. 285 (32): 24629–38. doi:10.1074/jbc.M110.119289. PMC 2915699. PMID 20519516. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2915699/.
- Greaves J, Chamberlain LH (April 2010). "S-acylation by the DHHC protein family". Biochem. Soc. Trans. 38 (2): 522–4. doi:10.1042/BST0380522. PMID 20298214.
- Hines RM, Kang R, Goytain A, Quamme GA (February 2010). "Golgi-specific DHHC Zinc Finger Protein GODZ Mediates Membrane Ca2+ Transport". J. Biol. Chem. 285 (7): 4621–8. doi:10.1074/jbc.M109.069849. PMC 2836067. PMID 19955568. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2836067/.
- Mizumaru C, Saito Y, Ishikawa T, et al. (December 2009). "Suppression of APP-containing vesicle trafficking and production of beta-amyloid by AID/DHHC-12 protein". J. Neurochem. 111 (5): 1213–24. doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2009.06399.x. PMID 19780898.
- Noritake J, Fukata Y, Iwanaga T, et al. (July 2009). "Mobile DHHC palmitoylating enzyme mediates activity-sensitive synaptic targeting of PSD-95". J. Cell Biol. 186 (1): 147–60. doi:10.1083/jcb.200903101. PMC 2712995. PMID 19596852. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2712995/.
- Hou H, John Peter AT, Meiringer C, Subramanian K, Ungermann C (August 2009). "Analysis of DHHC acyltransferases implies overlapping substrate specificity and a two-step reaction mechanism". Traffic 10 (8): 1061–73. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0854.2009.00925.x. PMID 19453970.
- Greaves J, Prescott GR, Fukata Y, Fukata M, Salaun C, Chamberlain LH (March 2009). "The Hydrophobic Cysteine-rich Domain of SNAP25 Couples with Downstream Residues to Mediate Membrane Interactions and Recognition by DHHC Palmitoyl Transferases". Mol. Biol. Cell 20 (6): 1845–54. doi:10.1091/mbc.E08-09-0944. PMC 2655257. PMID 19158383. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2655257/.
- Johswich A, Kraft B, Wuhrer M, et al. (January 2009). "Golgi targeting of Drosophila melanogaster β4GalNAcTB requires a DHHC protein family–related protein as a pilot". J. Cell Biol. 184 (1): 173–83. doi:10.1083/jcb.200801071. PMC 2615082. PMID 19139268. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2615082/.
- Matakatsu H, Blair SS (September 2008). "approximated encodes a DHHC palmitoyltransferase that regulates Fat signaling and the subcellular localization and activity of Dachs". Curr. Biol. 18 (18): 1390–5. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2008.07.067. PMC 2597019. PMID 18804377. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2597019/.
- Bannan BA, Van Etten J, Kholer JA, et al. (2008). "The Drosophila protein palmitoylome: Characterizing palmitoyl-thioesterases and DHHC palmitoyl-transferases". Fly (Austin) 2 (4): 198–214. PMC 2898910. PMID 18719403. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2898910/.
- Dighe SA, Kozminski KG (October 2008). "Swf1p, a Member of the DHHC-CRD Family of Palmitoyltransferases, Regulates the Actin Cytoskeleton and Polarized Secretion Independently of Its DHHC Motif". Mol. Biol. Cell 19 (10): 4454–68. doi:10.1091/mbc.E08-03-0252. PMC 2555925. PMID 18701706. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2555925/.
- Lam KK, Davey M, Sun B, Roth AF, Davis NG, Conibear E (July 2006). "Palmitoylation by the DHHC protein Pfa4 regulates the ER exit of Chs3". J. Cell Biol. 174 (1): 19–25. doi:10.1083/jcb.200602049. PMC 2064155. PMID 16818716. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2064155/.
- Ohno Y, Kihara A, Sano T, Igarashi Y (April 2006). "Intracellular localization and tissue-specific distribution of human and yeast DHHC cysteine-rich domain-containing proteins". Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1761 (4): 474–83. doi:10.1016/j.bbalip.2006.03.010. PMID 16647879.
- Mitchell DA, Vasudevan A, Linder ME, Deschenes RJ (June 2006). "Protein palmitoylation by a family of DHHC protein S-acyltransferases". J. Lipid Res. 47 (6): 1118–27. doi:10.1194/jlr.R600007-JLR200. PMID 16582420.
- Hou H, Subramanian K, LaGrassa TJ, et al. (November 2005). "The DHHC protein Pfa3 affects vacuole-associated palmitoylation of the fusion factor Vac8". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102 (48): 17366–71. doi:10.1073/pnas.0508885102. PMC 1297695. PMID 16301533. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1297695/.
- Smotrys JE, Schoenfish MJ, Stutz MA, Linder ME (September 2005). "The vacuolar DHHC-CRD protein Pfa3p is a protein acyltransferase for Vac8p". J. Cell Biol. 170 (7): 1091–9. doi:10.1083/jcb.200507048. PMC 2171546. PMID 16186255. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2171546/.
- Gleason EJ, Lindsey WC, Kroft TL, Singson AW, L'hernault SW (January 2006). "spe-10 Encodes a DHHC–CRD Zinc-Finger Membrane Protein Required for Endoplasmic Reticulum/Golgi Membrane Morphogenesis During Caenorhabditis elegans Spermatogenesis". Genetics 172 (1): 145–58. doi:10.1534/genetics.105.047340. PMC 1456142. PMID 16143610. //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1456142/.
- Seydel KB, Gaur D, Aravind L, Subramanian G, Miller LH (August 2005). "Plasmodium falciparum: characterization of a late asexual stage golgi protein containing both ankyrin and DHHC domains". Exp. Parasitol. 110 (4): 389–93. doi:10.1016/j.exppara.2005.03.030. PMID 15882865.
- Saitoh F, Tian QB, Okano A, Sakagami H, Kondo H, Suzuki T (July 2004). "NIDD, a novel DHHC-containing protein, targets neuronal nitric-oxide synthase (nNOS) to the synaptic membrane through a PDZ-dependent interaction and regulates nNOS activity". J. Biol. Chem. 279 (28): 29461–8. doi:10.1074/jbc.M401471200. PMID 15105416.
- Nagaya M, Inohaya K, Imai Y, Kudo A (December 2002). "Expression of zisp, a DHHC zinc finger gene, in somites and lens during zebrafish embryogenesis". Gene Expr. Patterns 2 (3–4): 355–8. doi:10.1016/S1567-133X(02)00021-2. PMID 12617825.
- Uemura T, Mori H, Mishina M (August 2002). "Isolation and characterization of Golgi apparatus-specific GODZ with the DHHC zinc finger domain". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 296 (2): 492–6. doi:10.1016/S0006-291X(02)00900-2. PMID 12163046.
- Li B, Cong F, Tan CP, Wang SX, Goff SP (August 2002). "Aph2, a protein with a zf-DHHC motif, interacts with c-Abl and has pro-apoptotic activity". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (32): 28870–6. doi:10.1074/jbc.M202388200. PMID 12021275.
DHHC palmitoyltransferase Provide feedback
This family includes the well known DHHC zinc binding domain as well as three of the four conserved transmembrane regions found in this family of palmitoyltransferase enzymes.
Mesilaty-Gross S, Reich A, Motro B, Wides R; , Gene 1999;231:173-186.: The drosophila STAM gene homolog is in a tight gene cluster, and its expression correlates to that of the adjacent gene ial. PUBMED:10231582 EPMC:10231582
Boehm S, Frishman D, Mewes HW; , Nucleic Acids Res 1997;25:2464-2469.: Variations of the C2H2 zinc finger motif in the yeast genome and classification of yeast zinc finger proteins. PUBMED:9171100 EPMC:9171100
Bartels DJ, Mitchell DA, Dong X, Deschenes RJ; , Mol Cell Biol 1999;19:6775-6787.: Erf2, a Novel Gene Product That Affects the Localization and Palmitoylation of Ras2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PUBMED:10490616 EPMC:10490616
External database links
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR001594
Zinc finger (Znf) domains are relatively small protein motifs which contain multiple finger-like protrusions that make tandem contacts with their target molecule. Some of these domains bind zinc, but many do not; instead binding other metals such as iron, or no metal at all. For example, some family members form salt bridges to stabilise the finger-like folds. They were first identified as a DNA-binding motif in transcription factor TFIIIA from Xenopus laevis (African clawed frog), however they are now recognised to bind DNA, RNA, protein and/or lipid substrates [PUBMED:10529348, PUBMED:15963892, PUBMED:15718139, PUBMED:17210253, PUBMED:12665246]. Their binding properties depend on the amino acid sequence of the finger domains and of the linker between fingers, as well as on the higher-order structures and the number of fingers. Znf domains are often found in clusters, where fingers can have different binding specificities. There are many superfamilies of Znf motifs, varying in both sequence and structure. They display considerable versatility in binding modes, even between members of the same class (e.g. some bind DNA, others protein), suggesting that Znf motifs are stable scaffolds that have evolved specialised functions. For example, Znf-containing proteins function in gene transcription, translation, mRNA trafficking, cytoskeleton organisation, epithelial development, cell adhesion, protein folding, chromatin remodelling and zinc sensing, to name but a few [PUBMED:11179890]. Zinc-binding motifs are stable structures, and they rarely undergo conformational changes upon binding their target.
This entry represents the DHHC-type zinc finger domain, which is also known as NEW1 [PUBMED:10231582]. The DHHC Zn-finger was first isolated in the Drosophila putative transcription factor DNZ1 and was named after a conserved sequence motif [PUBMED:10231582]. This domain has palmitoyltransferase activity; this post-translational modification attaches the C16 saturated fatty acid palmitate via a thioester linkage, predominantly to cysteine residues [PUBMED:17051234]. This domain is found in the DHHC proteins which are palmitoyl transferases [PUBMED:15603741]; the DHHC motif is found within a cysteine-rich domain which is thought to contain the catalytic site.
More information about these proteins can be found at Protein of the Month: Zinc Fingers [PUBMED:].
The mapping between Pfam and Gene Ontology is provided by InterPro. If you use this data please cite InterPro.
|Molecular function||zinc ion binding (GO:0008270)|
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Curation and family details
|Seed source:||Pfam-B_945 (release 4.0)|
|Number in seed:||97|
|Number in full:||4432|
|Average length of the domain:||169.10 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||23 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||40.72 %|
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build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 23193494 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||15|
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