Summary: Fic/DOC family
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Fic/DOC protein family Edit Wikipedia article
|This article is an orphan, as no other articles link to it. (January 2013)|
|structure of cell filamentation protein (fic) from helicobacter pylori|
In molecular biology, the Fic/DOC protein family is a family of proteins which includes the Fic (filamentation induced by cAMP) protein and doc (death on curing) protein. The Fic protein is involved in cell division and is suggested to be involved in the synthesis of p-aminobenzoate or folate, indicating that the Fic protein and cAMP are involved in a regulatory mechanism of cell division via folate metabolism. This family contains a central conserved motif HPFXXGNG in most members. The exact molecular function of these proteins is uncertain. P1 lysogens of Escherichia coli carry the prophage as a stable low copy number plasmid. The frequency with which viable cells cured of prophage are produced is about 10(-5) per cell per generation. A significant part of this remarkable stability can be attributed to a plasmid-encoded mechanism that causes death of cells that have lost P1. In other words, the lysogenic cells appear to be addicted to the presence of the prophage. The plasmid withdrawal response depends on a gene named doc (death on curing) that is represented by this family.
- Komano T, Utsumi R, Kawamukai M (1991). "Functional analysis of the fic gene involved in regulation of cell division". Res. Microbiol. 142 (2-3): 269–77. PMID 1656497.
- Lehnherr H, Maguin E, Jafri S, Yarmolinsky MB (October 1993). "Plasmid addiction genes of bacteriophage P1: doc, which causes cell death on curing of prophage, and phd, which prevents host death when prophage is retained". J. Mol. Biol. 233 (3): 414–28. doi:10.1006/jmbi.1993.1521. PMID 8411153.
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Fic/DOC family Provide feedback
This family consists of the Fic (filamentation induced by cAMP) protein and doc (death on curing). The Fic protein is involved in cell division and is suggested to be involved in the synthesis of PAB or folate, indicating that the Fic protein and cAMP are involved in a regulatory mechanism of cell division via folate metabolism . This family contains a central conserved motif HPFXXGNG in most members. The exact molecular function of these proteins is uncertain. P1 lysogens of Escherichia coli carry the prophage as a stable low copy number plasmid. The frequency with which viable cells cured of prophage are produced is about 10(-5) per cell per generation . A significant part of this remarkable stability can be attributed to a plasmid-encoded mechanism that causes death of cells that have lost P1 . In other words, the lysogenic cells appear to be addicted to the presence of the prophage. The plasmid withdrawal response depends on a gene named doc (death on curing) that is represented by this family . Doc induces a reversible growth arrest of E. coli cells by targetting the protein synthesis machinery. Doc hosts the C-terminal domain of its antitoxin partner Phd (prevents host death) through fold complementation, a domain that is intrinsically disordered in solution but that folds into an alpha-helix on binding to Doc .This domain forms complexes with Phd antitoxins containing PF02604.
Lehnherr H, Maguin E, Jafri S, Yarmolinsky MB; , J Mol Biol 1993;233:414-428.: Plasmid addiction genes of bacteriophage P1: doc, which causes cell death on curing of prophage, and phd, which prevents host death when prophage is retained. PUBMED:8411153 EPMC:8411153
Garcia-Pino A, Christensen-Dalsgaard M, Wyns L, Yarmolinsky M, Magnuson RD, Gerdes K, Loris R; , J Biol Chem 2008; [Epub ahead of print]: Doc of prophage P1 is inhibited by its antitoxin partner Phd though fold complementation. PUBMED:18757857 EPMC:18757857
External database links
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR003812
This globular domain is named fido after the Fic and Doc proteins where is found. It is approximately 125 to 150 residues long, and is present in proteins from all kingdoms of life [PUBMED:14659018, PUBMED:18757857, PUBMED:19127588, PUBMED:19503829], including:
- Fic (filamentation induced by cAMP) from diverse bacteria. It contains a longer insert in the fido domain.
- Doc (death on curing) proteins from phage P1 and several bacteria. All these proteins contain a minimal stand-alone version of the fido domain.
- HypE (Huntingtin associated protein E) from animal. In humans, HypE is thought to interact with Huntingtin, one of the major proteins in the Huntington's disease protein interaction network. Proteins related to HypE are also found in several bacteria and some archaea. HypE proteins contain a longer insert in their fido domain and are typically multidomain proteins.
- Type IV secretion system effector AnkX from Legionella.
- VopS, a type III secretion system effector from Vibrio that causes eukaryotic cell cytotoxicity.
- IbpA (virulence factor p76) from Haemophilus somnus. It includes an N- terminal haemagglutination activity domain, two fido domains and a peptidase C58 domain.
- BepA, an anti-apoptotic bacterial effector protein, which is a type IV secretion system substrate.
The fido domain of Vibrio VopS covalently modifies Rho GTPase threonine with AMP to inhibit downstream signaling events in host cells. The AMPylation activity extends to a eukaryotic fido domain in Drosophila fic homologue CG9523. AMPylation represents a newly discovered posttranslational modification used to stably modify proteins with AMP. This signaling mechanism is predicted to be functionally similar to other posttranslation modifications such as phosphorylation, SUMOylation or acetylation, because the added moiety changes the activity of the modified protein. The covalent attachment of AMP by a phosphodiester bond is predicted to be reversible and is bulky enough to provide a docking site for a putative AMP binding domain [PUBMED:19503829].
The fido domain contains a central motif conserved in most sequences (H-x-F-x-[DE]-[AG]-N-[GK]-R), with the motif His contributing to fic AMPylation. The fido domain adopts an alpha-helical fold, arranged as a six-helix up and down bundle [PUBMED:18757857, PUBMED:19127588, PUBMED:19503829].
Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...
The graphic that is shown by default represents the longest sequence with a given architecture. Each row contains the following information:
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We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family. You can see a description of each above. You can view these alignments in various ways but please note that some types of alignment are never generated while others may not be available for all families, most commonly because the alignments are too large to handle.
1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available
Key: available, not generated, — not available.
Format an alignment
We make all of our alignments available in Stockholm format. You can download them here as raw, plain text files or as gzip-compressed files.
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MyHits provides a collection of tools to handle multiple sequence alignments. For example, one can refine a seed alignment (sequence addition or removal, re-alignment or manual edition) and then search databases for remote homologs using HMMER3.
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This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.
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Curation and family details
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|Seed source:||COG2184 & COG3654|
|Author:||Bashton M, Bateman A|
|Number in seed:||221|
|Number in full:||6829|
|Average length of the domain:||97.70 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||21 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||34.91 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 23193494 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||13|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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This visualisation provides a simple graphical representation of the distribution of this family across species. You can find the original interactive tree in the More....
This chart is a modified "sunburst" visualisation of the species tree for this family. It shows each node in the tree as a separate arc, arranged radially with the superkingdoms at the centre and the species arrayed around the outermost ring.
How the sunburst is generated
The tree is built by considering the taxonomic lineage of each sequence that has a match to this family. For each node in the resulting tree, we draw an arc in the sunburst. The radius of the arc, its distance from the root node at the centre of the sunburst, shows the taxonomic level ("superkingdom", "kingdom", etc). The length of the arc represents either the number of sequences represented at a given level, or the number of species that are found beneath the node in the tree. The weighting scheme can be changed using the sunburst controls.
In order to reduce the complexity of the representation, we reduce the number of taxonomic levels that we show. We consider only the following eight major taxonomic levels:
Colouring and labels
Segments of the tree are coloured approximately according to their superkingdom. For example, archeal branches are coloured with shades of orange, eukaryotes in shades of purple, etc. The colour assignments are shown under the sunburst controls. Where space allows, the name of the taxonomic level will be written on the arc itself.
As you move your mouse across the sunburst, the current node will be highlighted. In the top section of the controls panel we show a summary of the lineage of the currently highlighed node. If you pause over an arc, a tooltip will be shown, giving the name of the taxonomic level in the title and a summary of the number of sequences and species below that node in the tree.
Anomalies in the taxonomy tree
There are some situations that the sunburst tree cannot easily handle and for which we have work-arounds in place.
Missing taxonomic levels
Some species in the taxonomic tree may not have one or more of the main eight levels that we display. For example, Bos taurus is not assigned an order in the NCBI taxonomic tree. In such cases we mark the omitted level with, for example, "No order", in both the tooltip and the lineage summary.
Unmapped species names
The tree is built by looking at each sequence in the full alignment for the family. We take the name of the species given by UniProt and try to map that to the full taxonomic tree from NCBI. In some cases, the name chosen by UniProt does not map to any node in the NCBI tree, perhaps because the chosen name is listed as a synonym or a misspelling in the NCBI taxonomy.
So that these nodes are not simply omitted from the sunburst tree, we group them together in a separate branch (or segment of the sunburst tree). Since we cannot determine the lineage for these unmapped species, we show all levels between the superkingdom and the species as "uncategorised".
Since we reduce the species tree to only the eight main taxonomic levels, sequences that are mapped to the sub-species level in the tree would not normally be shown. Rather than leave out these species, we map them instead to their parent species. So, for example, for sequences belonging to one of the Vibrio cholerae sub-species in the NCBI taxonomy, we show them instead as belonging to the species Vibrio cholerae.
Too many species/sequences
For large species trees, you may see blank regions in the outer layers of the sunburst. These occur when there are large numbers of arcs to be drawn in a small space. If an arc is less than approximately one pixel wide, it will not be drawn and the space will be left blank. You may still be able to get some information about the species in that region by moving your mouse across the area, but since each arc will be very small, it will be difficult to accurately locate a particular species.
The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...
We show the species tree in one of two ways. For smaller trees we try to show an interactive representation, which allows you to select specific nodes in the tree and view them as an alignment or as a set of Pfam domain graphics.
Unfortunately we have found that there are problems viewing the interactive tree when the it becomes larger than a certain limit. Furthermore, we have found that Internet Explorer can become unresponsive when viewing some trees, regardless of their size. We therefore show a text representation of the species tree when the size is above a certain limit or if you are using Internet Explorer to view the site.
If you are using IE you can still load the interactive tree by clicking the "Generate interactive tree" button, but please be aware of the potential problems that the interactive species tree can cause.
For all of the domain matches in a full alignment, we count the number that are found on all sequences in the alignment. This total is shown in the purple box.
We also count the number of unique sequences on which each domain is found, which is shown in green. Note that a domain may appear multiple times on the same sequence, leading to the difference between these two numbers.
Finally, we group sequences from the same organism according to the NCBI code that is assigned by UniProt, allowing us to count the number of distinct sequences on which the domain is found. This value is shown in the pink boxes.
We use the NCBI species tree to group organisms according to their taxonomy and this forms the structure of the displayed tree. Note that in some cases the trees are too large (have too many nodes) to allow us to build an interactive tree, but in most cases you can still view the tree in a plain text, non-interactive representation. Those species which are represented in the seed alignment for this domain are highlighted.
You can use the tree controls to manipulate how the interactive tree is displayed:
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For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the Fic domain has been found. There are 61 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein seqence.
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