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0  structures 78  species 0  interactions 2399  sequences 5  architectures

Family: V1R (PF03402)

Summary: Vomeronasal organ pheromone receptor family, V1R

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This is the Wikipedia entry entitled "Vomeronasal receptor". More...

Vomeronasal receptor Edit Wikipedia article

Vomeronasal receptor, type 1
Identifiers
Symbol Vmron_rcpt_1
Pfam PF03402
InterPro IPR004072

Pheromones have evolved in all animal phyla, to signal sex and dominance status, and are responsible for stereotypical social and sexual behaviour among members of the same species. In mammals, these chemical signals are believed to be detected primarily by the vomeronasal organ (VNO), a chemosensory organ located at the base of the nasal septum.[1]

The VNO is present in most amphibia, reptiles and non-primate mammals but is absent in birds, adult catarrhine monkeys and apes.[2] An active role for the human VNO in the detection of pheromones is disputed; the VNO is clearly present in the fetus but appears to be atrophied or absent in adults. Three distinct families of putative pheromone receptors have been identified in the vomeronasal organ (V1Rs, V2Rs and V3Rs). All are G protein-coupled receptors but are only distantly related to the receptors of the main olfactory system, highlighting their different role.[1]

The V1 receptors share between 50 and 90% sequence identity but have little similarity to other families of G protein-coupled receptors. They appear to be distantly related to the mammalian T2R bitter taste receptors and the rhodopsin-like GPCRs.[3] In rat, the family comprises 30-40 genes. These are expressed in the apical regions of the VNO, in neurons expressing Gi2. Coupling of the receptors to this protein mediates inositol trisphosphate signalling.[1] A number of human V1 receptor homologues have also been found. The majority of these human sequences are pseudogenes[4] but an apparently functional receptor has been identified that is expressed in the human olfactory system.[5]

[edit] Human proteins containing this domain

VN1R1; VN1R2; VN1R3; VN1R5;

[edit] References

  1. ^ a b c Pantages E, Dulac C (2000). "A novel family of candidate pheromone receptors in mammals". Neuron 28 (3): 835–845. doi:10.1016/S0896-6273(00)00157-4. PMID 11163270. 
  2. ^ Keverne EB (1999). "The vomeronasal organ". Science 286 (5440): 716–720. doi:10.1126/science.286.5440.716. PMID 10531049. 
  3. ^ Josefsson LG (1999). "Evidence for kinship between diverse G-protein coupled receptors". Gene 239 (2): 333–340. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(99)00392-3. PMID 10548735. 
  4. ^ Trask BJ, Giorgi D, Friedman C, Rouquier S (2000). "Characterization of nonfunctional V1R-like pheromone receptor sequences in human". Genome Res. 10 (12): 1979–1985. doi:10.1101/gr.10.12.1979. PMC 313059. PMID 11116092. 
  5. ^ Rodriguez I, Greer CA, Mok MY, Mombaerts P (2000). "A putative pheromone receptor gene expressed in human olfactory mucosa". Nat. Genet. 26 (1): 18–19. doi:10.1038/79124. PMID 10973240. 

This article incorporates text from the public domain Pfam and InterPro IPR004072

This page is based on a Wikipedia article. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License.

This tab holds the annotation information that is stored in the Pfam database. As we move to using Wikipedia as our main source of annotation, the contents of this tab will be gradually replaced by the Wikipedia tab.

Vomeronasal organ pheromone receptor family, V1R Provide feedback

This family represents one of two known vomeronasal organ receptor families, the V1R family (after [4]).

Literature references

  1. Dulac C, Axel R; , Cell 1995;83:195-206.: A novel family of genes encoding putative pheromone receptors in mammals. PUBMED:7585937 EPMC:7585937

  2. Rodriguez I, Feinstein P, Mombaerts P; , Cell 1999;97:199-208.: Variable patterns of axonal projections of sensory neurons in the mouse vomeronasal system. PUBMED:10219241 EPMC:10219241

  3. Mombaerts P; , Science 1999;286:707-711.: Seven-transmembrane proteins as odorant and chemosensory receptors. PUBMED:10531047 EPMC:10531047

  4. Ryba NJ; , Curr Biol 1999;9:963-1032.: Pheromone reception: A complex map of activation in the brain. PUBMED:10395534 EPMC:10395534


External database links

This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.

InterPro entry IPR004072

G-protein-coupled receptors, GPCRs, constitute a vast protein family that encompasses a wide range of functions (including various autocrine, paracrine and endocrine processes). They show considerable diversity at the sequence level, on the basis of which they can be separated into distinct groups. We use the term clan to describe the GPCRs, as they embrace a group of families for which there are indications of evolutionary relationship, but between which there is no statistically significant similarity in sequence [PUBMED:8170923]. The currently known clan members include the rhodopsin-like GPCRs, the secretin-like GPCRs, the cAMP receptors, the fungal mating pheromone receptors, and the metabotropic glutamate receptor family. There is a specialised database for GPCRs (http://www.gpcr.org/7tm/).

The rhodopsin-like GPCRs themselves represent a widespread protein family that includes hormone, neurotransmitter and light receptors, all of which transduce extracellular signals through interaction with guanine nucleotide-binding (G) proteins. Although their activating ligands vary widely in structure and character, the amino acid sequences of the receptors are very similar and are believed to adopt a common structural framework comprising 7 transmembrane (TM) helices [PUBMED:2111655, PUBMED:2830256, PUBMED:8386361].

Pheromones have evolved in all animal phyla, to signal sex and dominance status, and are responsible for stereotypical social and sexual behaviour among members of the same species. In mammals, these chemical signals are believed to be detected primarily by the vomeronasal organ (VNO), a chemosensory organ located at the base of the nasal septum [PUBMED:11163270]. The VNO is present in most amphibia, reptiles and non-primate mammals but is absent in birds, adult catarrhine monkeys and apes [PUBMED:10531049]. An active role for the human VNO in the detection of pheromones is disputed; the VNO is clearly present in the foetus but appears to be atrophied or absent in adults. Three distinct families of putative pheromone receptors have been identified in the vomeronasal organ (V1Rs, V2Rs and V3Rs). All are G protein-coupled receptors but are only distantly related to the receptors of the main olfactory system, highlighting their different role [PUBMED:11163270].

The V1 receptors share between 50 and 90% sequence identity but have little similarity to other families of G protein-coupled receptors. They appear to be distantly related to the mammalian T2R bitter taste receptors and the rhodopsin-like GPCRs [PUBMED:10548735]. In rat, the family comprises 30-40 genes. These are expressed in the apical regions of the VNO, in neurons expressing Gi2. Coupling of the receptors to this protein mediates inositol trisphosphate signalling [PUBMED:11163270]. A number of human V1 receptor homologues have also been found. The majority of these human sequences are pseudogenes [PUBMED:11116092] but an apparently functional receptor has been identified that is expressed in the human olfactory system [PUBMED:10973240].

Gene Ontology

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Domain organisation

Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...

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Pfam Clan

This family is a member of clan GPCR_A (CL0192), which has the following description:

This clan contains various seven-transmembrane receptors and related proteins. A major member is Pfam:PF00001, members of which have been considered to be typical members of the rhodopsin superfamily. Many members of this clan are Caenorhabditis proteins, suggesting great expansion of the relevant families in these nematode worms.

The clan contains the following 35 members:

7TM-7TMR_HD 7tm_1 7tm_2 7tm_4 7TM_GPCR_Sra 7TM_GPCR_Srab 7TM_GPCR_Srb 7TM_GPCR_Srbc 7TM_GPCR_Srd 7TM_GPCR_Srh 7TM_GPCR_Sri 7TM_GPCR_Srj 7TM_GPCR_Srsx 7TM_GPCR_Srt 7TM_GPCR_Sru 7TM_GPCR_Srv 7TM_GPCR_Srw 7TM_GPCR_Srx 7TM_GPCR_Srz 7TM_GPCR_Str Bac_rhodopsin Dicty_CAR DUF1182 DUF621 Frizzled Git3 Git3_C GpcrRhopsn4 Lung_7-TM_R Ocular_alb Serpentine_r_xa Sre Srg TAS2R V1R

Alignments

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We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family. You can see a description of each above. You can view these alignments in various ways but please note that some types of alignment are never generated while others may not be available for all families, most commonly because the alignments are too large to handle.

  Seed
(2)
Full
(2399)
Representative proteomes NCBI
(2009)
Meta
(0)
RP15
(7)
RP35
(20)
RP55
(850)
RP75
(1464)
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1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available

Key: ✓ available, x not generated, not available.

Format an alignment

  Seed
(2)
Full
(2399)
Representative proteomes NCBI
(2009)
Meta
(0)
RP15
(7)
RP35
(20)
RP55
(850)
RP75
(1464)
Alignment:
Format:
Order:
Sequence:
Gaps:
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We make all of our alignments available in Stockholm format. You can download them here as raw, plain text files or as gzip-compressed files.

  Seed
(2)
Full
(2399)
Representative proteomes NCBI
(2009)
Meta
(0)
RP15
(7)
RP35
(20)
RP55
(850)
RP75
(1464)
Raw Stockholm Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download    
Gzipped Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download    

You can also download a FASTA format file containing the full-length sequences for all sequences in the full alignment.

External links

MyHits provides a collection of tools to handle multiple sequence alignments. For example, one can refine a seed alignment (sequence addition or removal, re-alignment or manual edition) and then search databases for remote homologs using HMMER3.

Pfam alignments:

HMM logo

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Trees

This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.

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Curation and family details

This section shows the detailed information about the Pfam family. You can see the definitions of many of the terms in this section in the glossary and a fuller explanation of the scoring system that we use in the scores section of the help pages.

Curation View help on the curation process

Seed source: Pfam-B_3057 (release 6.6)
Previous IDs: none
Type: Family
Author: Mifsud W
Number in seed: 2
Number in full: 2399
Average length of the domain: 245.10 aa
Average identity of full alignment: 33 %
Average coverage of the sequence by the domain: 86.01 %

HMM information View help on HMM parameters

HMM build commands:
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 23193494 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
Model details:
Parameter Sequence Domain
Gathering cut-off 25.0 25.0
Trusted cut-off 25.0 25.0
Noise cut-off 24.6 24.7
Model length: 265
Family (HMM) version: 9
Download: download the raw HMM for this family

Species distribution

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