Summary: Protein of unknown function (DUF461)
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Domain of unknown function Edit Wikipedia article
A domain of unknown function (DUF) is a protein domain that has no characterised function. These families have been collected together in the Pfam database using the prefix DUF followed by a number, with examples being DUF2992 and DUF1220. There are now over 3,000 DUF families within the Pfam database representing over 20% of known families.
The DUF naming scheme was introduced by Chris Ponting, through the addition of DUF1 and DUF2 to the SMART database. These two domains were found to be widely distributed in bacterial signaling proteins. Subsequently, the functions of these domains were identified and they have since been renamed as the GGDEF domain and EAL domain respectively.
Structural genomics programmes have attempted to understand the function of DUFs through structure determination. The structures of over 250 DUF families have been solved. This work showed that about two thirds of DUF families had a structure similar to a previously solved one and therefore likely to be divergent members of existing protein superfamilies, whereas about one third possessed a novel protein fold.
- Bateman A, Coggill P, Finn RD (October 2010). "DUFs: families in search of function". Acta Crystallogr. Sect. F Struct. Biol. Cryst. Commun. 66 (Pt 10): 1148–52. DOI:10.1107/S1744309110001685. PMC 2954198. PMID 20944204. //www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2954198.
- Schultz J, Milpetz F, Bork P, Ponting CP (May 1998). "SMART, a simple modular architecture research tool: identification of signaling domains". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 95 (11): 5857–64. DOI:10.1073/pnas.95.11.5857. PMC 34487. PMID 9600884. //www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=34487.
- Jaroszewski L, Li Z, Krishna SS, et al. (September 2009). "Exploration of uncharted regions of the protein universe". PLoS Biol. 7 (9): e1000205. DOI:10.1371/journal.pbio.1000205. PMC 2744874. PMID 19787035. //www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2744874.
"DUF" families are annotated with the Domain of unknown function Wikipedia article. This is a general article, with no specific information about individual Pfam DUFs. If you have information about this particular DUF, please let us know using the "Add annotation" button below.
Protein of unknown function (DUF461) Provide feedback
Putative membrane or periplasmic protein.
External database links
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR007410
This entry represents a domain found in of proteins of unknown function, including DR1885 from Deinococcus radiodurans and CC3502 from Caulobacter crescentus (Caulobacter vibrioides), which share a potential metal binding motif H(M)X10MX21HXM. DR1885 was found to bind copper(I) through a histidine and three Mets in a cupredoxin-like fold [PUBMED:15753304]. The surface location of the copper-binding site as well as the type of coordination are well poised for metal transfer chemistry, suggesting that DR1885 might transfer copper, taking the role of Cox17 in bacteria (Cox17 being an accessory protein required for correct assembly of eukaryotic cyochrome c oxidase).
- the number of sequences which exhibit this architecture
a textual description of the architecture, e.g. Gla, EGF x 2, Trypsin.
This example describes an architecture with one
Gladomain, followed by two consecutive
EGFdomains, and finally a single
- the UniProt description of the protein sequence
- the number of residues in the sequence
- the Pfam graphic itself.
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We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family:
- the curated alignment from which the HMM for the family is built
- the alignment generated by searching the sequence database using the HMM
- Representative Proteomes (RPs) at 15%, 35%, 55% and 75% co-membership thresholds
- alignment generated by searching the NCBI sequence database using the family HMM
- alignment generated by searching the metagenomics sequence database using the family HMM
You can see the alignments as HTML or in three different sequence viewers:
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1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available
Key: available, not generated, — not available.
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Curation and family details
|Number in seed:||175|
|Number in full:||1433|
|Average length of the domain:||110.60 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||30 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||62.80 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 23193494 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||8|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...
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For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the DUF461 domain has been found. There are 6 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein seqence.
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