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28  structures 1134  species 0  interactions 1309  sequences 2  architectures

Family: MecA (PF05389)

Summary: Negative regulator of genetic competence (MecA)

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Negative regulator of genetic competence (MecA) Provide feedback

This family contains several bacterial MecA proteins. The development of competence in Bacillus subtilis is regulated by growth conditions and several regulatory genes. In complex media competence development is poor, and there is little or no expression of late competence genes. Mec mutations permit competence development and late competence gene expression in complex media, bypassing the requirements for many of the competence regulatory genes. The mecA gene product acts negatively in the development of competence. Null mutations in mecA allow expression of a late competence gene comG, under conditions where it is not normally expressed, including in complex media and in cells mutant for several competence regulatory genes. Overexpression of MecA inhibits comG transcription [1,2,3].

Literature references

  1. Kong L, Siranosian KJ, Grossman AD, Dubnau D; , Mol Microbiol 1993;9:365-373.: Sequence and properties of mecA, a negative regulator of genetic competence in Bacillus subtilis. PUBMED:8412687 EPMC:8412687

  2. Nakano MM, Nakano S, Zuber P; , Mol Microbiol 2002;44:1341-1349.: Spx (YjbD), a negative effector of competence in Bacillus subtilis, enhances ClpC-MecA-ComK interaction. PUBMED:12028382 EPMC:12028382

  3. Borezee E, Msadek T, Durant L, Berche P; , J Bacteriol 2000;182:5931-5934.: Identification in Listeria monocytogenes of MecA, a homologue of the Bacillus subtilis competence regulatory protein. PUBMED:11004200 EPMC:11004200


External database links

This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.

InterPro entry IPR008681

Competence is the ability of a cell to take up exogenous DNA from its environment, resulting in transformation. It is widespread among bacteria and is probably an important mechanism for the horizontal transfer of genes. Cells that take up DNA inevitably acquire the nucleotides the DNA consists of, and, because nucleotides are needed for DNA and RNA synthesis and are expensive to synthesise, these may make a significant contribution to the cell's energy budget [PUBMED:11483988]. The lateral gene transfer caused by competence also contributes to the genetic diversity that makes evolution possible.

DNA usually becomes available by the death and lysis of other cells. Competent bacteria use components of extracellular filaments called type 4 pili to create pores in their membranes and pull DNA through the pores into the cytoplasm. This process, including the development of competence and the expression of the uptake machinery, is regulated in response to cell-cell signalling and/or nutritional conditions [PUBMED:8901420].

This family contains several bacterial MecA proteins. In complex media competence development is poor, and there is little or no expression of late competence genes. Overexpression of MecA inhibits comG transcription [PUBMED:11004200, PUBMED:12028382, PUBMED:8412687].

MecA enables the recognition and targeting of unfolded and aggregated proteins to the ClpC protease or to other proteins involved in proteolysis. Acts negatively in the development of competence by binding ComK and recruiting it to the ClpCP protease. When overexpressed, inhibits sporulation. Also involved in Spx degradation by ClpC.

Domain organisation

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Alignments

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(42)
Full
(1309)
Representative proteomes NCBI
(674)
Meta
(7)
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(45)
RP35
(89)
RP55
(117)
RP75
(147)
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  Seed
(42)
Full
(1309)
Representative proteomes NCBI
(674)
Meta
(7)
RP15
(45)
RP35
(89)
RP55
(117)
RP75
(147)
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  Seed
(42)
Full
(1309)
Representative proteomes NCBI
(674)
Meta
(7)
RP15
(45)
RP35
(89)
RP55
(117)
RP75
(147)
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You can also download a FASTA format file containing the full-length sequences for all sequences in the full alignment.

External links

MyHits provides a collection of tools to handle multiple sequence alignments. For example, one can refine a seed alignment (sequence addition or removal, re-alignment or manual edition) and then search databases for remote homologs using HMMER3.

Pfam alignments:

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Curation and family details

This section shows the detailed information about the Pfam family. You can see the definitions of many of the terms in this section in the glossary and a fuller explanation of the scoring system that we use in the scores section of the help pages.

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Seed source: DOMO:DM05333;
Previous IDs: none
Type: Family
Author: Moxon SJ
Number in seed: 42
Number in full: 1309
Average length of the domain: 222.50 aa
Average identity of full alignment: 30 %
Average coverage of the sequence by the domain: 97.79 %

HMM information View help on HMM parameters

HMM build commands:
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 23193494 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
Model details:
Parameter Sequence Domain
Gathering cut-off 21.1 21.1
Trusted cut-off 22.1 21.5
Noise cut-off 20.7 20.1
Model length: 220
Family (HMM) version: 7
Download: download the raw HMM for this family

Species distribution

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Structures

For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the MecA domain has been found. There are 28 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein seqence.

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