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0  structures 234  species 0  interactions 500  sequences 6  architectures

Family: DLIC (PF05783)

Summary: Dynein light intermediate chain (DLIC)

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This is the Wikipedia entry entitled "Dynein". More...

Dynein Edit Wikipedia article

Dynein complex
Cytoplasmic dynein has two heavy chains with globular "heads" that "walk" along the microtubule, to which they are bound by the "stalks". Dynactin (not shown) may help attach the light chains to the cargo. Interactions between the "stalks" and the microtubule must repeatedly form and break (see main text for details)

Dynein is a motor protein (also called molecular motor or motor molecule) in cells which converts the chemical energy contained in ATP into the mechanical energy of movement. Dynein transports various cellular cargo by "walking" along cytoskeletal microtubules towards the minus-end of the microtubule, which is usually oriented towards the cell center. Thus, they are called "minus-end directed motors." This form of transport is known as retrograde transport. In contrast, kinesins are motor proteins that move toward the microtubules' plus end, are called plus-end directed motors.

Classification[edit]

Dynein heavy chain, N-terminal region 1
Identifiers
Symbol DHC_N1
Pfam PF08385
InterPro IPR013594
Dynein heavy chain, N-terminal region 2
Identifiers
Symbol DHC_N2
Pfam PF08393
InterPro IPR013602
Dynein heavy chain and region D6 of dynein motor
Identifiers
Symbol Dynein_heavy
Pfam PF03028
InterPro IPR004273
Dynein light intermediate chain (DLIC)
Identifiers
Symbol DLIC
Pfam PF05783
Pfam clan CL0023
Dynein light chain type 1
PDB 1cmi EBI.jpg
structure of the human pin/lc8 dimer with a bound peptide
Identifiers
Symbol Dynein_light
Pfam PF01221
InterPro IPR001372
PROSITE PDOC00953
SCOP 1bkq
SUPERFAMILY 1bkq

Dyneins can be divided into two groups: cytoplasmic dyneins and axonemal dyneins, which are also called ciliary or flagellar dyneins.

Function[edit]

Axonemal dynein causes sliding of microtubules in the axonemes of cilia and flagella and is found only in cells that have those structures.

Cytoplasmic dynein, found in all animal cells and possibly plant cells as well, performs functions necessary for cell survival such as organelle transport and centrosome assembly.[1] Cytoplasmic dynein moves processively along the microtubule; that is, one or the other of its stalks is always attached to the microtubule so that the dynein can "walk" a considerable distance along a microtubule without detaching.

Cytoplasmic dynein probably helps to position the Golgi complex and other organelles in the cell.[1] It also helps transport cargo needed for cell function such as vesicles made by the endoplasmic reticulum, endosomes, and lysosomes (Karp, 2005). Dynein is involved in the movement of chromosomes and positioning the mitotic spindles for cell division.[2][3] Dynein carries organelles, vesicles and possibly microtubule fragments along the axons of neurons toward the cell body in a process called retrograde axoplasmic transport.[1]

Structure[edit]

Each molecule of the dynein motor is a complex protein assembly composed of many smaller polypeptide subunits. Cytoplasmic and axonemal dynein contain some of the same components, but they also contain some unique subunits

Cytoplasmic dynein[edit]

Cytoplasmic dynein, which has a molecular mass of about 1.5 Megadaltons (MDa), contains approximately twelve polypeptide subunits: two identical "heavy chains," 520 kDa in mass, which contain the ATPase activity and are thus responsible for generating movement along the microtubule; two 74 kDa intermediate chains which are believed to anchor the dynein to its cargo; four 53-59 kDa intermediate chains and several light chains which are less understood.

The force-generating ATPase activity of each dynein heavy chain is located in its large doughnut-shaped "head", which is related to other AAA proteins, while two projections from the head connect it to other cytoplasmic structures. One projection, the coiled-coil stalk, binds to and "walks" along the surface of the microtubule via a repeated cycle of detachment and reattachment. The other projection, the extended tail (also called "stem"), binds to the intermediate and light chain subunits which attach the dynein to its cargo. The alternating activity of the paired heavy chains in the complete cytoplasmic dynein motor enables a single dynein molecule to transport its cargo by "walking" a considerable distance along a microtubule without becoming completely detached.

In eukaryotes, cytoplasmic dynein must be activated by binding of dynactin, another multisubunit protein that is essential for mitosis. Dynactin may regulate the activity of dynein, and possibly facilitates the attachment of dynein to its cargo.

Axonemal dynein[edit]

A cross-section of an axoneme, with axonemal dynein arms

Axonemal dyneins come in multiple forms that contain either one, two or three non-identical heavy chains (depending upon the organism and location in the cilium). Each heavy chain has a globular motor domain with a doughnut-shaped structure believed to resemble that of other AAA proteins, a coiled coil "stalk" that binds to the microtubule, and an extended tail (or "stem") that attaches to a neighboring microtubule of the same axoneme. Each dynein molecule thus forms a cross-bridge between two adjacent microtubules of the ciliary axoneme. During the "power stroke", which causes movement, the AAA ATPase motor domain undergoes a conformational change that causes the microtubule-binding stalk to pivot relative to the cargo-binding tail with the result that one microtubule slides relative to the other (Karp, 2005). This sliding produces the bending movement needed for cilia to beat and propel the cell or other particles. Groups of dynein molecules responsible for movement in opposite directions are probably activated and inactivated in a coordinated fashion so that the cilia or flagella can move back and forth. The radial spoke has been proposed as the (or one of the) structures that synchronizes this movement.

History[edit]

The protein responsible for movement of cilia and flagella was first discovered and named dynein in 1963 (Karp, 2005). 20 years later, cytoplasmic dynein, which had been suspected to exist since the discovery of flagellar dynein, was isolated and identified (Karp, 2005).

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Gerald Karp, Kurt Beginnen, Sebastian Vogel, Susanne Kuhlmann-Krieg (2005). Molekulare Zellbiologie (in French). Springer. ISBN 978-3-540-23857-7. 
  2. ^ Samora, CP; Mogessie, B; Conway, L; Ross, JL; Straube, A; McAinsh, AD (Aug 7, 2011). "MAP4 and CLASP1 operate as a safety mechanism to maintain a stable spindle position in mitosis.". Nature cell biology 13 (9): 1040–50. PMID 21822276. 
  3. ^ Kiyomitsu, Tomomi; Iain M. Cheeseman (2012-02-12). "Chromosome- and spindle-pole-derived signals generate an intrinsic code for spindle position and orientation". Nature Cell Biology. doi:10.1038/ncb2440. ISSN 1465-7392. Retrieved 2012-02-14. 

External links[edit]

This page is based on a Wikipedia article. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License.

This tab holds the annotation information that is stored in the Pfam database. As we move to using Wikipedia as our main source of annotation, the contents of this tab will be gradually replaced by the Wikipedia tab.

Dynein light intermediate chain (DLIC) Provide feedback

This family consists of several eukaryotic dynein light intermediate chain proteins. The light intermediate chains (LICs) of cytoplasmic dynein consist of multiple isoforms, which undergo post-translational modification to produce a large number of species. DLIC1 is known to be involved in assembly, organisation, and function of centrosomes and mitotic spindles when bound to pericentrin [1,2]. DLIC2 is a subunit of cytoplasmic dynein 2 that may play a role in maintaining Golgi organisation by binding cytoplasmic dynein 2 to its Golgi-associated cargo [3].

Literature references

  1. Purohit A, Tynan SH, Vallee R, Doxsey SJ; , J Cell Biol 1999;147:481-492.: Direct interaction of pericentrin with cytoplasmic dynein light intermediate chain contributes to mitotic spindle organization. PUBMED:10545494 EPMC:10545494

  2. Tynan SH, Purohit A, Doxsey SJ, Vallee RB; , J Biol Chem 2000;275:32763-32768.: Light intermediate chain 1 defines a functional subfraction of cytoplasmic dynein which binds to pericentrin. PUBMED:10893222 EPMC:10893222

  3. Grissom PM, Vaisberg EA, McIntosh JR; , Mol Biol Cell 2002;13:817-829.: Identification of a novel light intermediate chain (D2LIC) for mammalian cytoplasmic dynein 2. PUBMED:11907264 EPMC:11907264

  4. Fujita I, Yamashita A, Yamamoto M;, Genes Cells. 2010;15:359-372.: Contribution of dynein light intermediate and intermediate chains to subcellular localization of the dynein-dynactin motor complex in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. PUBMED:20298435 EPMC:20298435


External database links

This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.

InterPro entry IPR022780

This entry consists of several eukaryotic dynein light intermediate chain proteins. The light intermediate chains (LICs) of cytoplasmic dynein consist of multiple isoforms, which undergo post-translational modification to produce a large number of species. DLIC1 is known to be involved in assembly, organisation, and function of centrosomes and mitotic spindles when bound to pericentrin [PUBMED:10545494, PUBMED:10893222]. DLIC2 is a subunit of cytoplasmic dynein 2 that may play a role in maintaining Golgi organisation by binding cytoplasmic dynein 2 to its Golgi-associated cargo [PUBMED:11907264].

Domain organisation

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Pfam Clan

This family is a member of clan P-loop_NTPase (CL0023), which has the following description:

AAA family proteins often perform chaperone-like functions that assist in the assembly, operation, or disassembly of protein complexes [2].

The clan contains the following 198 members:

6PF2K AAA AAA-ATPase_like AAA_10 AAA_11 AAA_12 AAA_13 AAA_14 AAA_15 AAA_16 AAA_17 AAA_18 AAA_19 AAA_2 AAA_21 AAA_22 AAA_23 AAA_24 AAA_25 AAA_26 AAA_27 AAA_28 AAA_29 AAA_3 AAA_30 AAA_31 AAA_32 AAA_33 AAA_34 AAA_35 AAA_4 AAA_5 AAA_6 AAA_7 AAA_8 AAA_9 AAA_PrkA ABC_ATPase ABC_tran ABC_tran_2 Adeno_IVa2 Adenylsucc_synt ADK AFG1_ATPase AIG1 APS_kinase Arch_ATPase Arf ArgK ArsA_ATPase ATP-synt_ab ATP_bind_1 ATP_bind_2 Bac_DnaA CbiA CMS1 CoaE CobA_CobO_BtuR CobU cobW CPT CTP_synth_N Cytidylate_kin Cytidylate_kin2 DAP3 DEAD DEAD_2 DLIC DNA_pack_C DNA_pack_N DNA_pol3_delta DNA_pol3_delta2 DnaB_C dNK DUF1253 DUF1611 DUF2075 DUF2478 DUF258 DUF2791 DUF2813 DUF3584 DUF463 DUF815 DUF853 DUF87 DUF927 Dynamin_N Exonuc_V_gamma FeoB_N Fer4_NifH Flavi_DEAD FTHFS FtsK_SpoIIIE G-alpha Gal-3-0_sulfotr GBP GTP_EFTU GTP_EFTU_D2 GTP_EFTU_D4 Gtr1_RagA Guanylate_kin GvpD HDA2-3 Helicase_C Helicase_C_2 Helicase_C_4 Helicase_RecD Herpes_Helicase Herpes_ori_bp Herpes_TK IIGP IPPT IPT IstB_IS21 KaiC KAP_NTPase Kinesin Kinesin-relat_1 Kinesin-related KTI12 LpxK MCM MEDS Mg_chelatase Mg_chelatase_2 MipZ Miro MMR_HSR1 MobB MukB MutS_V Myosin_head NACHT NB-ARC NOG1 NTPase_1 ParA Parvo_NS1 PAXNEB PduV-EutP PhoH PIF1 Podovirus_Gp16 Polyoma_lg_T_C Pox_A32 PPK2 PPV_E1_C PRK Rad17 Rad51 Ras RecA ResIII RHD3 RHSP RNA12 RNA_helicase RuvB_N SbcCD_C SecA_DEAD Septin Sigma54_activ_2 Sigma54_activat SKI SMC_N SNF2_N Spore_IV_A SRP54 SRPRB Sulfotransfer_1 Sulfotransfer_2 Sulfotransfer_3 Sulphotransf T2SE T4SS-DNA_transf Terminase_1 Terminase_3 Terminase_6 Terminase_GpA Thymidylate_kin TIP49 TK TniB Torsin TraG-D_C tRNA_lig_kinase TrwB_AAD_bind UPF0079 UvrD-helicase UvrD_C UvrD_C_2 Viral_helicase1 VirC1 VirE YhjQ Zeta_toxin Zot

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(249)
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Seed source: Pfam-B_7447 (release 8.0)
Previous IDs: none
Type: Family
Author: Moxon SJ
Number in seed: 8
Number in full: 500
Average length of the domain: 276.10 aa
Average identity of full alignment: 25 %
Average coverage of the sequence by the domain: 71.25 %

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HMM build commands:
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 23193494 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
Model details:
Parameter Sequence Domain
Gathering cut-off 19.7 11.0
Trusted cut-off 19.9 11.0
Noise cut-off 19.6 10.9
Model length: 472
Family (HMM) version: 6
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