Summary: Insulin-like growth factor II E-peptide
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Insulin-like growth factor 2 Edit Wikipedia article
|Insulin-like growth factor 2 (somatomedin A)|
PDB rendering based on 1igl.
|RNA expression pattern|
|Insulin-like growth factor II E-peptide|
Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2) is one of three protein hormones that share structural similarity to insulin. The MeSH definition reads: "A well-characterized neutral peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like and mitogenic activities. The growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on somatotropin. It is believed to be a major fetal growth factor in contrast to Insulin-like growth factor 1, which is a major growth factor in adults".
In humans, the IGF2 gene is located on chromosome 11p15.5, a region which contains numerous imprinted genes. In mice this homologous region is found at distal chromosome 7. In both organisms, Igf2 is imprinted, with expression resulting favourably from the paternally inherited allele. However, in the human brain a loss of imprinting occurs resulting in both IGF2 and H19 being transcribed from both parental alleles.
The protein CTCF is involved in repressing expression of the gene, by binding to the H19 imprinting control region (ICR) along with Differentially-methylated Region-1 (DMR1) and Matrix Attachment Region -3 (MAR3). These three DNA sequences bind to CTCF in a way that limits downstream enhancer access to the Igf2 region. The mechanism in which CTCF binds to these regions is currently unknown, but could include either a direct DNA-CTCF interaction or it could possibly be mediated by other proteins. In mammals (mice, humans, pigs), only the allele for insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGF2) inherited from one's father is active; that inherited from the mother is not — a phenomenon called imprinting.The mechanism: the mother's allele has an insulator between the IGF2 promoter and enhancer. So does the father's allele, but in his case, the insulator has been methylated. CTCF can no longer bind to the insulator, and so the enhancer is now free to turn on the father's IGF2 promoter.
The major role of IGF-2 is as a growth promoting hormone during gestation.
IGF-2 exerts its effects by binding to the IGF-1 receptor. IGF2 may also bind to the IGF-2 receptor (also called the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor), which acts as a signalling antagonist; that is, to prevent IGF2 responses.
In the process of folliculogenesis, IGF-2 is created by theca cells to act in an autocrine manner on the theca cells themselves, and in a paracrine manner on granulosa cells in the ovary. IGF2 promotes granulosa cell proliferation during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, acting alongside follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). After ovulation has occurred, IGF-2 promotes progesterone secretion during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, together with luteinizing hormone (LH). Thus, IGF2 acts as a co-hormone together with both FSH and LH.
A study at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine found that IGF-2 may be linked to memory. A study at the European Neuroscience Institute-Goettingen (Germany) found that fear extinction-induced IGF2/IGFBP7 signalling promotes the survival of 17–19-day-old newborn hippocampal neurons. This suggests that therapeutic strategies that enhance IGF2 signalling and adult neurogenesis might be suitable to treat diseases linked to excessive fear memory such as PTSD.
It is sometimes produced in excess in islet cell tumours, causing hypoglycemia. Doege-Potter syndrome is a paraneoplastic syndrome in which hypoglycemia is associated with the presence of one or more non-islet fibrous tumors in the pleural cavity. Loss of imprinting of IGF2 is a common feature in tumours seen in Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. As IGF2 promotes development of fetal pancreatic beta cells, it is believed to be related to some forms of diabetes mellitus.
- Chen, Dillon; Sarah Stern, Ana Garcia-Osta, Bernadette Saunier-Rebori, Gabriella Pollonini, Dhananjay Bambah-Mukku, Robert D. Blitzer, Cristina M. Alberini (27 January 2011). "A critical role for IGF-II in memory consolidation and enhancement". Nature 469: 491–497. doi:10.1038/nature09667.
- Agis-Balboa RC, Arcos-Diaz D, Wittnam J, Govindarajan N, Blom K, Burkhardt S, Haladyniak U, Agbemenyah HY, Zovoilis A, Salinas-Riester G, Opitz L, Sananbenesi F, Fischer A (August 2011). "A hippocampal insulin-growth factor 2 pathway regulates the extinction of fear memories". EMBO J 30 (19): 4071–83. doi:10.1038/emboj.2011.293. PMID 21873981.
- Balduyck B, Lauwers P, Govaert K, Hendriks J, De Maeseneer M, Van Schil P (July 2006). "Solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura with associated hypoglycemia: Doege-Potter syndrome: a case report". J Thorac Oncol 1 (6): 588–90. doi:10.1097/01243894-200607000-00016. PMID 17409923.
- Storch, S; Kübler B, Höning S, Ackmann M, Zapf J, Blum W, Braulke T (Dec. 2001). "Transferrin binds insulin-like growth factors and affects binding properties of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3". FEBS Lett. (Netherlands) 509 (3): 395–8. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(01)03204-5. ISSN 0014-5793. PMID 11749962.
- Buckway, C K; Wilson E M, Ahlsén M, Bang P, Oh Y, Rosenfeld R G (Oct. 2001). "Mutation of three critical amino acids of the N-terminal domain of IGF-binding protein-3 essential for high affinity IGF binding". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (United States) 86 (10): 4943–50. doi:10.1210/jc.86.10.4943. ISSN 0021-972X. PMID 11600567.
- Twigg, S M; Baxter R C (Mar. 1998). "Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-binding protein 5 forms an alternative ternary complex with IGFs and the acid-labile subunit". J. Biol. Chem. (UNITED STATES) 273 (11): 6074–9. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.11.6074. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 9497324.
- Firth, S M; Ganeshprasad U, Baxter R C (Jan. 1998). "Structural determinants of ligand and cell surface binding of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3". J. Biol. Chem. (UNITED STATES) 273 (5): 2631–8. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.5.2631. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 9446566.
- Insulin-Like Growth Factor II at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)
- O'Dell SD, Day IN (1998). "Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II).". Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 30 (7): 767–71. doi:10.1016/S1357-2725(98)00048-X. PMID 9722981.
- Butler AA, Yakar S, Gewolb IH, et al. (1999). "Insulin-like growth factor-I receptor signal transduction: at the interface between physiology and cell biology.". Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B, Biochem. Mol. Biol. 121 (1): 19–26. doi:10.1016/S0305-0491(98)10106-2. PMID 9972281.
- Kalli KR, Conover CA (2004). "The insulin-like growth factor/insulin system in epithelial ovarian cancer.". Front. Biosci. 8: d714–22. doi:10.2741/1034. PMID 12700030.
- Wood AW, Duan C, Bern HA (2005). "Insulin-like growth factor signaling in fish.". Int. Rev. Cytol. 243: 215–85. doi:10.1016/S0074-7696(05)43004-1. PMID 15797461.
- Fowden AL, Sibley C, Reik W, Constancia M (2006). "Imprinted genes, placental development and fetal growth.". Horm. Res. 65 Suppl 3 (3): 50–8. doi:10.1159/000091506. PMID 16612114.
This tab holds the annotation information that is stored in the Pfam database. As we move to using Wikipedia as our main source of annotation, the contents of this tab will be gradually replaced by the Wikipedia tab.
Insulin-like growth factor II E-peptide Provide feedback
This domain is found at the C-terminal domain of the insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-2, also see PF00049) in vertebrates and seems to represent the E-peptide [1,2].
van Doorn J, Hoogerbrugge CM, Koster JG, Bloemen RJ, Hoekman K, Mudde AH, van Buul-Offers SC; , Clin Chem 2002;48:1739-1750.: Antibodies directed against the E region of pro-insulin-like growth factor-II used to evaluate non-islet cell tumor-induced hypoglycemia. PUBMED:12324491 EPMC:12324491
External database links
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR013576
The insulin family of proteins groups together several evolutionarily related active peptides [PUBMED:6107857]: these include insulin [PUBMED:6243748, PUBMED:503234], relaxin [PUBMED:10601981, PUBMED:8735594], insect prothoracicotropic hormone (bombyxin) [PUBMED:8683595], insulin-like growth factors (IGF1 and IGF2) [PUBMED:2036417, PUBMED:1319992], mammalian Leydig cell-specific insulin-like peptide (gene INSL3), early placenta insulin-like peptide (ELIP) (gene INSL4), locust insulin-related peptide (LIRP), molluscan insulin-related peptides (MIP), and Caenorhabditis elegans insulin-like peptides. The 3D structures of a number of family members have been determined [PUBMED:2036417, PUBMED:1319992, PUBMED:9141131]. The fold comprises two polypeptide chains (A and B) linked by two disulphide bonds: all share a conserved arrangement of 4 cysteines in their A chain, the first of which is linked by a disulphide bond to the third, while the second and fourth are linked by interchain disulphide bonds to cysteines in the B chain.
Insulin is found in many animals, and is involved in the regulation of normal glucose homeostasis. It also has other specific physiological effects, such as increasing the permeability of cells to monosaccharides, amino acids and fatty acids, and accelerating glycolysis and glycogen synthesis in the liver [PUBMED:6243748]. Insulin exerts its effects by interaction with a cell-surface receptor, which may also result in the promotion of cell growth [PUBMED:6243748].
Insulin is synthesised as a prepropeptide from which an endoplasmic reticulum-targeting sequence is cleaved to yield proinsulin. The sequence of prosinsulin contains 2 well-conserved regions (designated A and B), separated by an intervening connecting region (C), which is variable between species [PUBMED:503234]. The connecting region is cleaved, liberating the active protein, which contains the A and B chains, held together by 2 disulphide bonds [PUBMED:503234].
Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Proteins (IGFBP) are a group of vertebrate secreted proteins, which bind to IGF-I and IGF-II with high affinity and modulate the biological actions of IGFs. The IGFBP family has six distinct subgroups, IGFBP-1 through 6, based on conservation of gene (intron-exon) organisation, structural similarity, and binding affinity for IGFs. Across species, IGFBP-5 exhibits the most sequence conservation, while IGFBP-6 exhibits the least sequence conservation. The IGFBPs contain inhibitor domain homologues, which are related to MEROPS protease inhibitor family I31 (equistatin, clan IX).
All IGFBPs share a common domain architecture (INTERPRO:INTERPRO). While the N-terminal (INTERPRO, IGF binding protein domain), and the C-terminal (INTERPRO, thyroglobulin type-1 repeat) domains are conserved across vertebrate species, the mid-region is highly variable with respect to protease cleavage sites and phosphorylation and glycosylation sites. IGFBPs contain 16-18 conserved cysteines located in the N-terminal and the C-terminal regions, which form 8-9 disulphide bonds [PUBMED:11874691].
As demonstrated for human IGFBP-5, the N terminus is the primary binding site for IGF. This region, comprised of Val49, Tyr50, Pro62 and Lys68-Leu75, forms a hydrophobic patch on the surface of the protein [PUBMED:9822601]. The C terminus is also required for high affinity IGF binding, as well as for binding to the extracellular matrix [PUBMED:9725901] and for nuclear translocation [PUBMED:7519375, PUBMED:9660801] of IGFBP-3 and -5.
IGFBPs are unusually pleiotropic molecules. Like other binding proteins, IGFBP can prolong the half-life of IGFs via high affinity binding of the ligands. In addition to functioning as simple carrier proteins, serum IGFBPs also serve to regulate the endocrine and paracrine/autocrine actions of IGF by modulating the IGF available to bind to signalling IGF-I receptors [PUBMED:12379487, PUBMED:12379489]. Furthermore, IGFBPs can function as growth modulators independent of IGFs. For example, IGFBP-5 stimulates markers of bone formation in osteoblasts lacking functional IGFs [PUBMED:11874691]. The binding of IGFBP to its putative receptor on the cell membrane may stimulate the signalling pathway independent of an IGF receptor, to mediate the effects of IGFBPs in certain target cell types. IGFBP-1 and -2, but not other IGFBPs, contain a C-terminal Arg-Gly-Asp integrin-binding motif. Thus, IGFBP-1 can also stimulate cell migration of CHO and human trophoblast cells through an action mediated by alpha 5 beta 1 integrin [PUBMED:7504269]. Finally, IGFBPs transported into the nucleus (via the nuclear localisation signal) may also exert IGF-independent effects by transcriptional activation of genes.
Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...
The graphic that is shown by default represents the longest sequence with a given architecture. Each row contains the following information:
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We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family. You can see a description of each above. You can view these alignments in various ways but please note that some types of alignment are never generated while others may not be available for all families, most commonly because the alignments are too large to handle.
1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available
Key: available, not generated, — not available.
Format an alignment
We make all of our alignments available in Stockholm format. You can download them here as raw, plain text files or as gzip-compressed files.
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This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.
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Curation and family details
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|Seed source:||Pfam-B_4175 (release 18.0)|
|Number in seed:||8|
|Number in full:||168|
|Average length of the domain:||53.80 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||62 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||28.71 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 23193494 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||6|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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This visualisation provides a simple graphical representation of the distribution of this family across species. You can find the original interactive tree in the More....
This chart is a modified "sunburst" visualisation of the species tree for this family. It shows each node in the tree as a separate arc, arranged radially with the superkingdoms at the centre and the species arrayed around the outermost ring.
How the sunburst is generated
The tree is built by considering the taxonomic lineage of each sequence that has a match to this family. For each node in the resulting tree, we draw an arc in the sunburst. The radius of the arc, its distance from the root node at the centre of the sunburst, shows the taxonomic level ("superkingdom", "kingdom", etc). The length of the arc represents either the number of sequences represented at a given level, or the number of species that are found beneath the node in the tree. The weighting scheme can be changed using the sunburst controls.
In order to reduce the complexity of the representation, we reduce the number of taxonomic levels that we show. We consider only the following eight major taxonomic levels:
Colouring and labels
Segments of the tree are coloured approximately according to their superkingdom. For example, archeal branches are coloured with shades of orange, eukaryotes in shades of purple, etc. The colour assignments are shown under the sunburst controls. Where space allows, the name of the taxonomic level will be written on the arc itself.
As you move your mouse across the sunburst, the current node will be highlighted. In the top section of the controls panel we show a summary of the lineage of the currently highlighed node. If you pause over an arc, a tooltip will be shown, giving the name of the taxonomic level in the title and a summary of the number of sequences and species below that node in the tree.
Anomalies in the taxonomy tree
There are some situations that the sunburst tree cannot easily handle and for which we have work-arounds in place.
Missing taxonomic levels
Some species in the taxonomic tree may not have one or more of the main eight levels that we display. For example, Bos taurus is not assigned an order in the NCBI taxonomic tree. In such cases we mark the omitted level with, for example, "No order", in both the tooltip and the lineage summary.
Unmapped species names
The tree is built by looking at each sequence in the full alignment for the family. We take the name of the species given by UniProt and try to map that to the full taxonomic tree from NCBI. In some cases, the name chosen by UniProt does not map to any node in the NCBI tree, perhaps because the chosen name is listed as a synonym or a misspelling in the NCBI taxonomy.
So that these nodes are not simply omitted from the sunburst tree, we group them together in a separate branch (or segment of the sunburst tree). Since we cannot determine the lineage for these unmapped species, we show all levels between the superkingdom and the species as "uncategorised".
Since we reduce the species tree to only the eight main taxonomic levels, sequences that are mapped to the sub-species level in the tree would not normally be shown. Rather than leave out these species, we map them instead to their parent species. So, for example, for sequences belonging to one of the Vibrio cholerae sub-species in the NCBI taxonomy, we show them instead as belonging to the species Vibrio cholerae.
Too many species/sequences
For large species trees, you may see blank regions in the outer layers of the sunburst. These occur when there are large numbers of arcs to be drawn in a small space. If an arc is less than approximately one pixel wide, it will not be drawn and the space will be left blank. You may still be able to get some information about the species in that region by moving your mouse across the area, but since each arc will be very small, it will be difficult to accurately locate a particular species.
The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...
We show the species tree in one of two ways. For smaller trees we try to show an interactive representation, which allows you to select specific nodes in the tree and view them as an alignment or as a set of Pfam domain graphics.
Unfortunately we have found that there are problems viewing the interactive tree when the it becomes larger than a certain limit. Furthermore, we have found that Internet Explorer can become unresponsive when viewing some trees, regardless of their size. We therefore show a text representation of the species tree when the size is above a certain limit or if you are using Internet Explorer to view the site.
If you are using IE you can still load the interactive tree by clicking the "Generate interactive tree" button, but please be aware of the potential problems that the interactive species tree can cause.
For all of the domain matches in a full alignment, we count the number that are found on all sequences in the alignment. This total is shown in the purple box.
We also count the number of unique sequences on which each domain is found, which is shown in green. Note that a domain may appear multiple times on the same sequence, leading to the difference between these two numbers.
Finally, we group sequences from the same organism according to the NCBI code that is assigned by UniProt, allowing us to count the number of distinct sequences on which the domain is found. This value is shown in the pink boxes.
We use the NCBI species tree to group organisms according to their taxonomy and this forms the structure of the displayed tree. Note that in some cases the trees are too large (have too many nodes) to allow us to build an interactive tree, but in most cases you can still view the tree in a plain text, non-interactive representation. Those species which are represented in the seed alignment for this domain are highlighted.
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