Summary: Carbohydrate binding module 27
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Carbohydrate-binding module Edit Wikipedia article
|three-dimensional structures of three engineered cellulose-binding domains of cellobiohydrolase i from trichoderma reesei, nmr, 18 structures|
|solution structure of a cellulose binding domain from cellulomonas fimi by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy|
|crystal structure of a family iiia cbd from clostridium cellulolyticum|
|interactions of a family 18 chitinase with the designed inhibitor hm508, and its degradation product, chitobiono-delta-lactone|
|cbm6ct from clostridium thermocellum in complex with xylopentaose|
|cbm4 structure and function|
|solution structure of type x cbm|
|family 11 carbohydrate-binding module of cellulosomal cellulase lic26a-cel5e of clostridium thermocellum|
|xylan-binding module cbm15|
|structure of fam17 carbohydrate binding module from clostridium cellulovorans|
|crystal structure analysis of crosslinked-wga3/glcnacbeta1,4glcnac complex|
|glucoamylase, granular starch-binding domain complex with cyclodextrin, nmr, minimized average structure|
|structural and thermodynamic dissection of specific mannan recognition by a carbohydrate-binding module, tmcbm27|
|crystal structure of the serratia marcescens chitin-binding protein cbp21 y54a mutant.|
|crystal structure of glycosyltrehalose trehalohydrolase from sulfolobus solfataricus|
In molecular biology, a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) is a protein domain found in carbohydrate-active enzymes (for example glycoside hydrolases). The majority of these domains have carbohydrate-binding activity. Some of these domains are found on cellulosomal scaffoldin proteins. CBMs were previously known as cellulose-binding domains. CBMs are classified into numerous families, based on amino acid sequence similarity. There are currently (June 2011) 64 families of CBM in the CAZy database.
CBMs of microbial glycoside hydrolases play a central role in the recycling of photosynthetically fixed carbon through their binding to specific plant structural polysaccharides. CBMs can recognise both crystalline and amorphous cellulose forms. CBMs are the most common non-catalytic modules associated with enzymes active in plant cell-wall hydrolysis. Many putative CBMs have been identified by amino acid sequence alignments but only a few representatives have been shown experimentally to have a carbohydrate-binding function.
Carbohydrate-binding module family 2 (CBM2) contains two conserved cysteines - one at each extremity of the domain - which have been shown  to be involved in a disulfide bond. There are also four conserved tryptophans, two of which are involved in cellulose binding.
Carbohydrate-binding module family 3 (CBM3) is involved in cellulose binding  and is found associated with a wide range of bacterial glycosyl hydrolases. The structure of this domain is known; it forms a beta sandwich.
Carbohydrate-binding module family 4 (CBM4) includes the two cellulose-binding domains, CBD(N1) and CBD(N2), arranged in tandem at the N terminus of the 1,4-beta-glucanase, CenC, from Cellulomonas fimi. These homologous CBMs are distinct in their selectivity for binding amorphous and not crystalline cellulose. Multidimensional heteronuclear nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to determine the tertiary structure of the 152 amino acid N-terminal cellulose-binding domain from C. fimi 1,4-beta-glucanase CenC (CBDN1). The tertiary structure of CBDN1 is strikingly similar to that of the bacterial 1,3-1,4-beta-glucanases, as well as other sugar-binding proteins with jelly-roll folds. CBM4 and CBM9 are closely related.
Carbohydrate-binding module family 5 (CBM5) binds chitin. CBM5 and CBM12 are distantly related.
Carbohydrate-binding module family 6 (CBM6) is unusual in that is contains two substrate-binding sites, cleft A and cleft B. Cellvibrio mixtus endoglucanase 5A contains two CBM6 domains, the CBM6 domain at the C-terminus displays distinct ligand binding specificities in each of the sustrate-binding clefts. Both cleft A and cleft B can bind cello-oligosaccharides, laminarin preferentially binds in cleft A, xylooligosaccharides only bind in cleft A and beta1,4,-beta1,3-mixed linked glucans only bind in cleft B.
Carbohydrate-binding module family 9 (CBM9) binds to crystalline cellulose. CBM4 and CBM9 are closely related.
Carbohydrate-binding module family 10 (CBM10) is found in two distinct sets of proteins with different functions. Those found in aerobic bacteria bind cellulose (or other carbohydrates); but in anaerobic fungi they are protein binding domains, referred to as dockerin domains. The dockerin domains are believed to be responsible for the assembly of a multiprotein cellulase/hemicellulase complex, similar to the cellulosome found in certain anaerobic bacteria.
In anaerobic bacteria that degrade plant cell walls, exemplified by Clostridium thermocellum, the dockerin domains of the catalytic polypeptides can bind equally well to any cohesin from the same organism. More recently, anaerobic fungi, typified by Piromyces equi, have been suggested to also synthesise a cellulosome complex, although the dockerin sequences of the bacterial and fungal enzymes are completely different. For example, the fungal enzymes contain one, two or three copies of the dockerin sequence in tandem within the catalytic polypeptide. In contrast, all the C. thermocellum cellulosome catalytic components contain a single dockerin domain. The anaerobic bacterial dockerins are homologous to EF hands (calcium-binding motifs) and require calcium for activity whereas the fungal dockerin does not require calcium. Finally, the interaction between cohesin and dockerin appears to be species specific in bacteria, there is almost no species specificity of binding within fungal species and no identified sites that distinguish different species.
The of dockerin from P. equi contains two helical stretches and four short beta-strands which form an antiparallel sheet structure adjacent to an additional short twisted parallel strand. The N- and C-termini are adjacent to each other.
Carbohydrate-binding module family 11 (CBM11) is found in a number of bacterial cellulases. One example is the CBM11 of Clostridium thermocellum Cel26A-Cel5E, this domain has been shown to bind both β-1,4-glucan and β-1,3-1,4-mixed linked glucans. CBM11 has beta-sandwich structure with a concave side forming a substrate-binding cleft. 
Carbohydrate-binding module family 12 (CBM12) comprises two beta-sheets, consisting of two and three antiparallel beta strands respectively. It binds chitin via the aromatic rings of tryptophan residues. CBM5 and CBM12 are distantly related.
Carbohydrate-binding module family 14 (CBM14) is also known as the peritrophin-A domain. It is found in chitin binding proteins, particularly the peritrophic matrix proteins of insects and animal chitinases. Copies of the domain are also found in some baculoviruses. It is an extracellular domain that contains six conserved cysteines that probably form three disulfide bridges. Chitin binding has been demonstrated for a protein containing only two of these domains.
Carbohydrate-binding module family 15 (CBM15), found in bacterial enzymes, has been shown to bind to xylan and xylooligosaccharides. It has a beta-jelly roll fold, with a groove on the concave surface of one of the beta-sheets.
Carbohydrate-binding module family 17 (CBM17) appears to have a very shallow binding cleft that may be more accessible to cellulose chains in non-crystalline cellulose than the deeper binding clefts of family 4 CBMs. Sequence and structural conservation in families CBM17 and CBM28 suggests that they have evolved through gene duplication and subsequent divergence. CBM17 does not compete with CBM28 modules when binding to non-crystalline cellulose. Different CBMs have been shown to bind to different sirtes in amorphous cellulose, CBM17 and CBM28 recognise distinct non-overlapping sites in amorphous cellulose.
Carbohydrate-binding module family 18 (CBM18) (also known as chitin binding 1 or chitin recognition protein) is found in a number of plant and fungal proteins that bind N-acetylglucosamine (e.g. solanaceous lectins of tomato and potato, plant endochitinases, the wound-induced proteins: hevein, win1 and win2, and the Kluyveromyces lactis killer toxin alpha subunit). The domain may occur in one or more copies and is thought to be involved in recognition or binding of chitin subunits. In chitinases, as well as in the potato wound-induced proteins, this 43-residue domain directly follows the signal sequence and is therefore at the N terminus of the mature protein; in the killer toxin alpha subunit it is located in the central section of the protein.
Carbohydrate-binding module family 25 (CBM25) binds alpha-glucooligosaccharides, particularly those containing alpha-1,6 linkages, and granular starch.
Carbohydrate-binding module family 27 (CBM27) binds to beta-1,4-mannooligosaccharides, carob galactomannan, and konjac glucomannan, but not to cellulose (insoluble and soluble) or soluble birchwood xylan. CBM27 adopts a beta sandwich structure comprising 13 beta strands with a single, small alpha-helix and a single metal atom.
Carbohydrate-binding module family 28 (CBM28) does not compete with CBM17 modules when binding to non-crystalline cellulose. Different CBMs have been shown to bind to different sirtes in amorphous cellulose, CBM17 and CBM28 recognise distinct non-overlapping sites in amorphous cellulose. CBM28 has a "beta-jelly roll" topology, which is similar in structure to the CBM17 domains. Sequence and structural conservation in families CBM17 and CBM28 suggests that they have evolved through gene duplication and subsequent divergence.
Carbohydrate-binding module family 33 (CBM33) is a chitin-binding domain. It has a budded fibronectin type III fold consisting of two beta-sheets, arranged as a beta-sheet sandwich and a bud consisting of three short helices, located between beta-strands 1 and 2. It binds chitin via conserved polar amino acids. This domain is found in isolation in baculoviral spheroidin and spindolin proteins.
Carbohydrate-binding module family 48 (CBM48) is often found in enzymes containing glycosyl hydrolase family 13 catalytic domains. It is found in a range of enzymes that act on branched substrates ie. isoamylase, pullulanase and branching enzyme. Isoamylase hydrolyses 1,6-alpha-D-glucosidic branch linkages in glycogen, amylopectin and dextrin; 1,4-alpha-glucan branching enzyme functions in the formation of 1,6-glucosidic linkages of glycogen; and pullulanase is a starch-debranching enzyme. CBM48 binds glycogen.
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- Carvalho, A. L.; Goyal, A.; Prates, J. A.; Bolam, D. N.; Gilbert, H. J.; Pires, V. M.; Ferreira, L. M.; Planas, A. et al. (2004). "The Family 11 Carbohydrate-binding Module of Clostridium thermocellum Lic26A-Cel5E Accommodates -1,4- and -1,3-1,4-Mixed Linked Glucans at a Single Binding Site". Journal of Biological Chemistry 279 (33): 34785–34793. doi:10.1074/jbc.M405867200. PMID 15192099.
- Shen Z, Jacobs-Lorena M (July 1998). "A type I peritrophic matrix protein from the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae binds to chitin. Cloning, expression, and characterization". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (28): 17665–70. PMID 9651363.
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- Szabo, L.; Jamal, S.; Xie, H.; Charnock, S. J.; Bolam, D. N.; Gilbert, H. J.; Davies, G. J. (2001). "Structure of a Family 15 Carbohydrate-binding Module in Complex with Xylopentaose. EVIDENCE THAT XYLAN BINDS IN AN APPROXIMATE 3-FOLD HELICAL CONFORMATION". Journal of Biological Chemistry 276 (52): 49061–49065. doi:10.1074/jbc.M109558200. PMID 11598143.
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- Jamal, S.; Nurizzo, D.; Boraston, A. B.; Davies, G. J. (2004). "X-ray Crystal Structure of a Non-crystalline Cellulose-specific Carbohydrate-binding Module: CBM28". Journal of Molecular Biology 339 (2): 253–258. doi:10.1016/j.jmb.2004.03.069. PMID 15136030.
- Wright HT, Sandrasegaram G, Wright CS (September 1991). "Evolution of a family of N-acetylglucosamine binding proteins containing the disulfide-rich domain of wheat germ agglutinin". J. Mol. Evol. 33 (3): 283–94. PMID 1757999.
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Carbohydrate binding module 27 Provide feedback
Members of this family are carbohydrate binding modules that bind to beta-1, 4-mannooligosaccharides, carob galactomannan, and konjac glucomannan, but not to cellulose (insoluble and soluble) or soluble birchwood xylan. They adopt a beta sandwich structure comprising 13 beta strands with a single, small alpha-helix and a single metal atom .
Boraston AB, Revett TJ, Boraston CM, Nurizzo D, Davies GJ; , Structure. 2003;11:665-675.: Structural and thermodynamic dissection of specific mannan recognition by a carbohydrate binding module, TmCBM27. PUBMED:12791255 EPMC:12791255
External database links
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR015295
This domain is found in carbohydrate binding proteins that bind to beta-1, 4-mannooligosaccharides, carob galactomannan, and konjac glucomannan, but not to cellulose (insoluble and soluble) or soluble birchwood xylan. The region adopts a beta sandwich structure comprising 13 beta strands with a single, small alpha-helix and a single metal atom [PUBMED:12791255].
- the number of sequences which exhibit this architecture
a textual description of the architecture, e.g. Gla, EGF x 2, Trypsin.
This example describes an architecture with one
Gladomain, followed by two consecutive
EGFdomains, and finally a single
- the UniProt description of the protein sequence
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We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family:
- the curated alignment from which the HMM for the family is built
- the alignment generated by searching the sequence database using the HMM
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Curation and family details
|Number in seed:||2|
|Number in full:||51|
|Average length of the domain:||171.90 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||24 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||23.72 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 23193494 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||5|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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How the sunburst is generated
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Anomalies in the taxonomy tree
Missing taxonomic levels
Unmapped species names
Too many species/sequences
The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...
You can use the tree controls to manipulate how the interactive tree is displayed:
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For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the CBM27 domain has been found. There are 6 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein seqence.
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