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2  structures 1995  species 0  interactions 3851  sequences 6  architectures

Family: DUF3816 (PF12822)

Summary: Protein of unknown function (DUF3816)

Pfam includes annotations and additional family information from a range of different sources. These sources can be accessed via the tabs below.

This is the Wikipedia entry entitled "Domain of unknown function". More...

Domain of unknown function Edit Wikipedia article

A domain of unknown function (DUF) is a protein domain that has no characterised function. These families have been collected together in the Pfam database using the prefix DUF followed by a number, with examples being DUF2992 and DUF1220. There are now over 3,000 DUF families within the Pfam database representing over 20% of known families.[1]

History[edit]

The DUF naming scheme was introduced by Chris Ponting, through the addition of DUF1 and DUF2 to the SMART database.[2] These two domains were found to be widely distributed in bacterial signaling proteins. Subsequently, the functions of these domains were identified and they have since been renamed as the GGDEF domain and EAL domain respectively.

Structure[edit]

Structural genomics programmes have attempted to understand the function of DUFs through structure determination. The structures of over 250 DUF families have been solved.[3] This work showed that about two thirds of DUF families had a structure similar to a previously solved one and therefore likely to be divergent members of existing protein superfamilies, whereas about one third possessed a novel protein fold.

Frequency and conservation[edit]

Protein domains and DUFs in different domains of life. Left: Annotated domains. Right: domains of unknown function. Not all overlaps shown.[4]

More than 20% of all protein domains were annotated as DUFs in 2013. About 2,700 DUFs are found in bacteria compared with just over 1,500 in eukaryotes. Over 800 DUFs are shared between bacteria and eukaryotes, and about 300 of these are also present in archaea. A total of 2,786 bacterial Pfam domains even occur in animals, including 320 DUFs.[4]

Many DUFs are highly conserved, indicating an important role in biology. However, many such DUFs are not essential, hence their biological role often remains unknown. For instance, DUF143 is present in most bacteria and eukaryotic genomes.[5] However, when it was deleted in Escherichia coli no obvious phenotype was obvious. Later it was shown that the proteins that contain DUF143, are ribosomal silencing factors that block the assembly of the two ribosomal subunits.[5] While this function is not essential, it helps the cells to adapt to low nutrient conditions by shutting down protein biosynthesis. As a result, these proteins and the DUF only becomes relevant when the cells starve.[5]

Essential DUFs (eDUFs)[edit]

Goodacre et al. identified 238 DUFs in 355 essential proteins (in 16 model bacterial species), most of which represent single-domain proteins, clearly establishing the biological essentiality of DUFs. These DUFs are called "essential DUFs" or eDUFs.[4]

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bateman A, Coggill P, Finn RD (October 2010). "DUFs: families in search of function". Acta Crystallogr. Sect. F Struct. Biol. Cryst. Commun. 66 (Pt 10): 1148–52. doi:10.1107/S1744309110001685. PMC 2954198. PMID 20944204. 
  2. ^ Schultz J, Milpetz F, Bork P, Ponting CP (May 1998). "SMART, a simple modular architecture research tool: identification of signaling domains". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 95 (11): 5857–64. doi:10.1073/pnas.95.11.5857. PMC 34487. PMID 9600884. 
  3. ^ Jaroszewski L, Li Z, Krishna SS, et al. (September 2009). "Exploration of uncharted regions of the protein universe". PLoS Biol. 7 (9): e1000205. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1000205. PMC 2744874. PMID 19787035. 
  4. ^ a b c Goodacre, N. F.; Gerloff, D. L.; Uetz, P. (2013). "Protein Domains of Unknown Function Are Essential in Bacteria". MBio 5 (1): e00744–e00713. doi:10.1128/mBio.00744-13. PMID 24381303.  edit
  5. ^ a b c Häuser, R.; Pech, M.; Kijek, J.; Yamamoto, H.; Titz, B. R.; Naeve, F.; Tovchigrechko, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Szaflarski, W.; Takeuchi, N.; Stellberger, T.; Diefenbacher, M. E.; Nierhaus, K. H.; Uetz, P. (2012). "RsfA (YbeB) Proteins Are Conserved Ribosomal Silencing Factors". In Hughes, Diarmaid. PLoS Genetics 8 (7): e1002815. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1002815. PMC 3400551. PMID 22829778.  edit

This page is based on a Wikipedia article. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License.

"DUF" families are annotated with the Domain of unknown function Wikipedia article. This is a general article, with no specific information about individual Pfam DUFs. If you have information about this particular DUF, please let us know using the "Add annotation" button below.

Protein of unknown function (DUF3816) Provide feedback

This family of proteins is functionally uncharacterised but are likely to be membrane transporters. This family of proteins is found in bacteria and archaea. Proteins in this family are typically between 177 and 208 amino acids in length. A subset of this family is associated with the TM1506 proteins. In this context, transport through the channel is predicted to be regulated by the TM1506 protein by either regulating redox potential or modification of substrates [1]

Literature references

  1. Iyer LM, Zhang D, Rogozin IB, Aravind L;, Nucleic Acids Res. 2011; [Epub ahead of print]: Evolution of the deaminase fold and multiple origins of eukaryotic editing and mutagenic nucleic acid deaminases from bacterial toxin systems. PUBMED:21890906 EPMC:21890906


External database links

This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.

InterPro entry IPR024529

Energy-coupling factor (ECF) transporters consist of a substrate-specific component (known as the S component), and an energy-coupling module [PUBMED:18931129]. The substrate-binding component is a small integral membrane protein which captures specific substrates and forms an active transporter in the presence of the energy-coupling AT module. The energy coupling module is composed of an ATPase typical of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) superfamily (A component) and a characteristic transmembrane protein (T component). Unlike the ABC transporters, an energy coupling module can be shared between multiple different substrate-binding components.

This entry represents the substrate-specific component from a number of different ECF transporters.

Gene Ontology

The mapping between Pfam and Gene Ontology is provided by InterPro. If you use this data please cite InterPro.

Domain organisation

Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...

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Pfam Clan

This family is a member of clan Gx_transp (CL0315), which has the following description:

This superfamily includes a wide range of transporters that contain many conserved glycine residues in the presumed transmembrane regions.

The clan contains the following 12 members:

5TM-5TMR_LYT Bac_export_3 BioY CbiM DUF2232 DUF3816 ECF-ribofla_trS Hpre_diP_synt_I MreD QueT Thia_YuaJ ThiW

Alignments

We store a range of different sequence alignments for families. As well as the seed alignment from which the family is built, we provide the full alignment, generated by searching the sequence database using the family HMM. We also generate alignments using four representative proteomes (RP) sets, the NCBI sequence database, and our metagenomics sequence database. More...

View options

We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family. You can see a description of each above. You can view these alignments in various ways but please note that some types of alignment are never generated while others may not be available for all families, most commonly because the alignments are too large to handle.

  Seed
(172)
Full
(3851)
Representative proteomes NCBI
(3039)
Meta
(57)
RP15
(216)
RP35
(361)
RP55
(451)
RP75
(522)
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1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available

Key: ✓ available, x not generated, not available.

Format an alignment

  Seed
(172)
Full
(3851)
Representative proteomes NCBI
(3039)
Meta
(57)
RP15
(216)
RP35
(361)
RP55
(451)
RP75
(522)
Alignment:
Format:
Order:
Sequence:
Gaps:
Download/view:

Download options

We make all of our alignments available in Stockholm format. You can download them here as raw, plain text files or as gzip-compressed files.

  Seed
(172)
Full
(3851)
Representative proteomes NCBI
(3039)
Meta
(57)
RP15
(216)
RP35
(361)
RP55
(451)
RP75
(522)
Raw Stockholm Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download  
Gzipped Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download   Download  

You can also download a FASTA format file containing the full-length sequences for all sequences in the full alignment.

External links

MyHits provides a collection of tools to handle multiple sequence alignments. For example, one can refine a seed alignment (sequence addition or removal, re-alignment or manual edition) and then search databases for remote homologs using HMMER3.

Pfam alignments:

HMM logo

HMM logos is one way of visualising profile HMMs. Logos provide a quick overview of the properties of an HMM in a graphical form. You can see a more detailed description of HMM logos and find out how you can interpret them here. More...

Trees

This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.

Note: You can also download the data file for the tree.

Curation and family details

This section shows the detailed information about the Pfam family. You can see the definitions of many of the terms in this section in the glossary and a fuller explanation of the scoring system that we use in the scores section of the help pages.

Curation View help on the curation process

Seed source: Jackhmmer:Q188H8
Previous IDs: none
Type: Family
Author: Bateman A, Iyer LM
Number in seed: 172
Number in full: 3851
Average length of the domain: 168.30 aa
Average identity of full alignment: 20 %
Average coverage of the sequence by the domain: 85.15 %

HMM information View help on HMM parameters

HMM build commands:
build method: hmmbuild --amino -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 23193494 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
Model details:
Parameter Sequence Domain
Gathering cut-off 30.0 30.0
Trusted cut-off 30.0 30.0
Noise cut-off 29.9 29.9
Model length: 172
Family (HMM) version: 2
Download: download the raw HMM for this family

Species distribution

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This visualisation provides a simple graphical representation of the distribution of this family across species. You can find the original interactive tree in the adjacent tab. More...

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Structures

For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the DUF3816 domain has been found. There are 2 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein seqence.

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