Summary: Neuropeptide S precursor protein
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This is the Wikipedia entry entitled "Neuropeptide S". More...
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Neuropeptide S Edit Wikipedia article
Neuropeptide S (NPS) is a neuropeptide found in human and mammalian brain, mainly produced by neurons in the amygdala and between Barrington's nucleus and the locus coeruleus, although NPS-responsive neurons extend projections into many other brain areas. NPS binds specifically to a newly de-orphaned G protein-coupled receptor, NPSR. Animal studies show that NPS suppresses anxiety and appetite, induces wakefulness and hyperactivity, including hyper-sexuality, and plays a significant role in the extinction of conditioned fear. It has also been shown to significantly enhance dopamine activity in the mesolimbic pathway.
The non-peptide NPS receptor antagonist SHA-68 blocks the effects of NPS in animals and is anxiogenic. Several peptide derived NPS agonists and antagonists have also been developed.
Below are the sequences of mature neuropeptide S in several representative species in which it is expressed:
- Xu YL, Gall CM, Jackson VR, Civelli O, Reinscheid RK (January 2007). "Distribution of neuropeptide S receptor mRNA and neurochemical characteristics of neuropeptide S-expressing neurons in the rat brain". The Journal of Comparative Neurology 500 (1): 84–102. doi:10.1002/cne.21159. PMID 17099900.
- Jüngling K, Seidenbecher T, Sosulina L, Lesting J, Sangha S, Clark SD, Okamura N, Duangdao DM, Xu YL, Reinscheid RK, Pape HC (July 2008). "Neuropeptide S-mediated control of fear expression and extinction: role of intercalated GABAergic neurons in the amygdala". Neuron 59 (2): 298–310. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2008.07.002. PMC 2610688. PMID 18667157.
- Meis S, Bergado-Acosta JR, Yanagawa Y, Obata K, Stork O, Munsch T (2008). "Identification of a neuropeptide S responsive circuitry shaping amygdala activity via the endopiriform nucleus". In Grothe, Benedikt. PLoS ONE 3 (7): e2695. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0002695. PMC 2442874. PMID 18628994.
- Reinscheid RK, Xu YL (December 2005). "Neuropeptide S and its receptor: a newly deorphanized G protein-coupled receptor system". The Neuroscientist : a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry 11 (6): 532–8. doi:10.1177/1073858405276405. PMID 16282594.
- Reinscheid RK (2008). "Neuropeptide S: anatomy, pharmacology, genetics and physiological functions". Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation 46: 145–58. doi:10.1007/400_2007_051. PMID 18204825.
- Xu YL, Reinscheid RK, Huitron-Resendiz S, Clark SD, Wang Z, Lin SH, Brucher FA, Zeng J, Ly NK, Henriksen SJ, de Lecea L, Civelli O (August 2004). "Neuropeptide S: a neuropeptide promoting arousal and anxiolytic-like effects". Neuron 43 (4): 487–97. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2004.08.005. PMID 15312648.
- Reinscheid RK, Xu YL (November 2005). "Neuropeptide S as a novel arousal promoting peptide transmitter". The FEBS Journal 272 (22): 5689–93. doi:10.1111/j.1742-4658.2005.04982.x. PMID 16279934.
- Okamura N, Reinscheid RK (August 2007). "Neuropeptide S: a novel modulator of stress and arousal". Stress (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 10 (3): 221–6. doi:10.1080/10253890701248673. PMID 17613937.
- Leonard SK, Dwyer JM, Sukoff Rizzo SJ, Platt B, Logue SF, Neal SJ, Malberg JE, Beyer CE, Schechter LE, Rosenzweig-Lipson S, Ring RH (May 2008). "Pharmacology of neuropeptide S in mice: therapeutic relevance to anxiety disorders". Psychopharmacology 197 (4): 601–11. doi:10.1007/s00213-008-1080-4. PMID 18311561.
- Rizzi A, Vergura R, Marzola G, Ruzza C, Guerrini R, Salvadori S, Regoli D, Calo G (May 2008). "Neuropeptide S is a stimulatory anxiolytic agent: a behavioural study in mice". British Journal of Pharmacology 154 (2): 471–9. doi:10.1038/bjp.2008.96. PMC 2442439. PMID 18376418.
- Vitale G, Filaferro M, Ruggieri V, Pennella S, Frigeri C, Rizzi A, Guerrini R, Calò G (December 2008). "Anxiolytic-like effect of neuropeptide S in the rat defensive burying". Peptides 29 (12): 2286–91. doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2008.08.014. PMID 18793688.
- Mochizuki T, Kim J, Sasaki K (February 2010). "Microinjection of neuropeptide S into the rat ventral tegmental area induces hyperactivity and increases extracellular levels of dopamine metabolites in the nucleus accumbens shell". Peptides 31 (5): 926–31. doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2010.02.006. PMID 20156501.
- Okamura N, Habay SA, Zeng J, Chamberlin AR, Reinscheid RK (June 2008). "Synthesis and pharmacological in vitro and in vivo profile of 3-oxo-1,1-diphenyl-tetrahydro-oxazolo[3,4-a]pyrazine-7-carboxylic acid 4-fluoro-benzylamide (SHA 68), a selective antagonist of the neuropeptide S receptor". The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 325 (3): 893–901. doi:10.1124/jpet.107.135103. PMC 2583099. PMID 18337476.
- Roth AL, Marzola E, Rizzi A, Arduin M, Trapella C, Corti C, Vergura R, Martinelli P, Salvadori S, Regoli D, Corsi M, Cavanni P, Caló G, Guerrini R (July 2006). "Structure-activity studies on neuropeptide S: identification of the amino acid residues crucial for receptor activation". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 281 (30): 20809–16. doi:10.1074/jbc.M601846200. PMID 16720571.
- Camarda V, Trapella C, Calo G, Guerrini R, Rizzi A, Ruzza C, Fiorini S, Marzola E, Reinscheid RK, Regoli D, Salvadori S (February 2008). "Synthesis and biological activity of human neuropeptide S analogues modified in position 2". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 51 (3): 655–8. doi:10.1021/jm701204n. PMID 18181564.
- Camarda V, Trapella C, Calo' G, Guerrini R, Rizzi A, Ruzza C, Fiorini S, Marzola E, Reinscheid RK, Regoli D, Salvadori S (October 2008). "Structure-activity study at positions 3 and 4 of human neuropeptide S". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry 16 (19): 8841–5. doi:10.1016/j.bmc.2008.08.073. PMID 18793857.
- Guerrini R, Camarda V, Trapella C, Calò G, Rizzi A, Ruzza C, Fiorini S, Marzola E, Reinscheid RK, Regoli D, Salvadori S (January 2009). "Synthesis and biological activity of human neuropeptide S analogues modified in position 5: identification of potent and pure neuropeptide S receptor antagonists". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 52 (2): 524–9. doi:10.1021/jm8012294. PMC 2653091. PMID 19113861.
- Camarda V, Rizzi A, Ruzza C, Zucchini S, Marzola G, Marzola E, Guerrini R, Salvadori S, Reinscheid RK, Regoli D, Calò G (February 2009). "In vitro and in vivo pharmacological characterization of the neuropeptide s receptor antagonist [D-Cys(tBu)5]neuropeptide S". The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 328 (2): 549–55. doi:10.1124/jpet.108.143867. PMC 2630366. PMID 18971372.
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Neuropeptide S precursor protein Provide feedback
No Pfam abstract.
Beck B, Fernette B, Stricker-Krongrad A;, Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;332:859-865.: Peptide S is a novel potent inhibitor of voluntary and fast-induced food intake in rats. PUBMED:15919054 EPMC:15919054
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Below is a listing of the unique domain organisations or architectures in which this domain is found. More...
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1Cannot generate PP/Heatmap alignments for seeds; no PP data available
Key: available, not generated, — not available.
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This page displays the phylogenetic tree for this family's seed alignment. We use FastTree to calculate neighbour join trees with a local bootstrap based on 100 resamples (shown next to the tree nodes). FastTree calculates approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees from our seed alignment.
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This family is new in this Pfam release.
|Number in seed:||4|
|Number in full:||24|
|Average length of the domain:||64.00 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||73 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||77.25 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 23193494 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||1|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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This visualisation provides a simple graphical representation of the distribution of this family across species. You can find the original interactive tree in the More....
This chart is a modified "sunburst" visualisation of the species tree for this family. It shows each node in the tree as a separate arc, arranged radially with the superkingdoms at the centre and the species arrayed around the outermost ring.
How the sunburst is generated
The tree is built by considering the taxonomic lineage of each sequence that has a match to this family. For each node in the resulting tree, we draw an arc in the sunburst. The radius of the arc, its distance from the root node at the centre of the sunburst, shows the taxonomic level ("superkingdom", "kingdom", etc). The length of the arc represents either the number of sequences represented at a given level, or the number of species that are found beneath the node in the tree. The weighting scheme can be changed using the sunburst controls.
In order to reduce the complexity of the representation, we reduce the number of taxonomic levels that we show. We consider only the following eight major taxonomic levels:
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There are some situations that the sunburst tree cannot easily handle and for which we have work-arounds in place.
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Some species in the taxonomic tree may not have one or more of the main eight levels that we display. For example, Bos taurus is not assigned an order in the NCBI taxonomic tree. In such cases we mark the omitted level with, for example, "No order", in both the tooltip and the lineage summary.
Unmapped species names
The tree is built by looking at each sequence in the full alignment for the family. We take the name of the species given by UniProt and try to map that to the full taxonomic tree from NCBI. In some cases, the name chosen by UniProt does not map to any node in the NCBI tree, perhaps because the chosen name is listed as a synonym or a misspelling in the NCBI taxonomy.
So that these nodes are not simply omitted from the sunburst tree, we group them together in a separate branch (or segment of the sunburst tree). Since we cannot determine the lineage for these unmapped species, we show all levels between the superkingdom and the species as "uncategorised".
Since we reduce the species tree to only the eight main taxonomic levels, sequences that are mapped to the sub-species level in the tree would not normally be shown. Rather than leave out these species, we map them instead to their parent species. So, for example, for sequences belonging to one of the Vibrio cholerae sub-species in the NCBI taxonomy, we show them instead as belonging to the species Vibrio cholerae.
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The tree shows the occurrence of this domain across different species. More...
We show the species tree in one of two ways. For smaller trees we try to show an interactive representation, which allows you to select specific nodes in the tree and view them as an alignment or as a set of Pfam domain graphics.
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For all of the domain matches in a full alignment, we count the number that are found on all sequences in the alignment. This total is shown in the purple box.
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Finally, we group sequences from the same organism according to the NCBI code that is assigned by UniProt, allowing us to count the number of distinct sequences on which the domain is found. This value is shown in the pink boxes.
We use the NCBI species tree to group organisms according to their taxonomy and this forms the structure of the displayed tree. Note that in some cases the trees are too large (have too many nodes) to allow us to build an interactive tree, but in most cases you can still view the tree in a plain text, non-interactive representation. Those species which are represented in the seed alignment for this domain are highlighted.
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