Summary: Zinc carboxypeptidase
This is the Wikipedia entry entitled "Zinc carboxypeptidase". More...
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Zinc carboxypeptidase Edit Wikipedia article
The carboxypeptidase A family can be divided into two subfamilies: carboxypeptidase H (regulatory) and carboxypeptidase A (digestive). Members of the H family have longer C-termini than those of family A, and carboxypeptidase M (a member of the H family) is bound to the membrane by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor, unlike the majority of the M14 family, which are soluble.
The zinc ligands have been determined as two histidines and a glutamate, and the catalytic residue has been identified as a C-terminal glutamate, but these do not form the characteristic metalloprotease HEXXH motif. Members of the carboxypeptidase A family are synthesised as inactive molecules with propeptides that must be cleaved to activate the enzyme. Structural studies of carboxypeptidases A and B reveal the propeptide to exist as a globular domain, followed by an extended alpha-helix; this shields the catalytic site, without specifically binding to it, while the substrate-binding site is blocked by making specific contacts.
Other examples of protein families in this entry include:
- Intron maturase
- Putative mitochondrial processing peptidase alpha subunit
- Superoxide dismutase [Mn] (EC 188.8.131.52)
- Asparagine synthetase [glutamine-hydrolysing] 3 (EC 184.108.40.206)
- Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (EC 220.127.116.11)
 Human proteins containing this domain
- Rawlings ND, Barrett AJ (1995). "Evolutionary families of metallopeptidases". Meth. Enzymol. 248: 183–228. doi:10.1016/0076-6879(95)48015-3. PMID 7674922.
- Osterman AL, Grishin NV, Smulevitch SV, Zagnitko OP, Matz MV, Stepanov VM, Revina LP (1992). "Primary structure of carboxypeptidase T: delineation of functionally relevant features in Zn-carboxypeptidase family". J. Protein Chem. 11 (5): 561–570. PMID 1449602.
- Lipscomb WN, Rees DC, Lewis M (1983). "Refined crystal structure of carboxypeptidase A at 1.54 A resolution". J. Mol. Biol. 168 (2): 367–387. doi:10.1016/S0022-2836(83)80024-2. PMID 6887246.
- Huber R, Guasch A, Coll M, Aviles FX (1992). "Three-dimensional structure of porcine pancreatic procarboxypeptidase A. A comparison of the A and B zymogens and their determinants for inhibition and activation". J. Mol. Biol. 224 (1): 141–157. doi:10.1016/0022-2836(92)90581-4. PMID 1548696.
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No Pfam abstract.
Internal database links
|Similarity to PfamA using HHSearch:||AstE_AspA DUF2119 DUF2817|
External database links
This tab holds annotation information from the InterPro database.
InterPro entry IPR000834
In the MEROPS database peptidases and peptidase homologues are grouped into clans and families. Clans are groups of families for which there is evidence of common ancestry based on a common structural fold:
- Each clan is identified with two letters, the first representing the catalytic type of the families included in the clan (with the letter 'P' being used for a clan containing families of more than one of the catalytic types serine, threonine and cysteine). Some families cannot yet be assigned to clans, and when a formal assignment is required, such a family is described as belonging to clan A-, C-, M-, N-, S-, T- or U-, according to the catalytic type. Some clans are divided into subclans because there is evidence of a very ancient divergence within the clan, for example MA(E), the gluzincins, and MA(M), the metzincins.
- Peptidase families are grouped by their catalytic type, the first character representing the catalytic type: A, aspartic; C, cysteine; G, glutamic acid; M, metallo; N, asparagine; S, serine; T, threonine; and U, unknown. The serine, threonine and cysteine peptidases utilise the amino acid as a nucleophile and form an acyl intermediate - these peptidases can also readily act as transferases. In the case of aspartic, glutamic and metallopeptidases, the nucleophile is an activated water molecule. In the case of the asparagine endopeptidases, the nucleophile is asparagine and all are self-processing endopeptidases.
In many instances the structural protein fold that characterises the clan or family may have lost its catalytic activity, yet retain its function in protein recognition and binding.
Metalloproteases are the most diverse of the four main types of protease, with more than 50 families identified to date. In these enzymes, a divalent cation, usually zinc, activates the water molecule. The metal ion is held in place by amino acid ligands, usually three in number. The known metal ligands are His, Glu, Asp or Lys and at least one other residue is required for catalysis, which may play an electrophillic role. Of the known metalloproteases, around half contain an HEXXH motif, which has been shown in crystallographic studies to form part of the metal-binding site [PUBMED:7674922]. The HEXXH motif is relatively common, but can be more stringently defined for metalloproteases as 'abXHEbbHbc', where 'a' is most often valine or threonine and forms part of the S1' subsite in thermolysin and neprilysin, 'b' is an uncharged residue, and 'c' a hydrophobic residue. Proline is never found in this site, possibly because it would break the helical structure adopted by this motif in metalloproteases [PUBMED:7674922].
This group of sequences contain a diverse range of gene families, which include metallopeptidases belonging to MEROPS peptidase family M14 (carboxypeptidase A, clan MC), subfamilies M14A and M14B.
The carboxypeptidase A family can be divided into two subfamilies: carboxypeptidase H (regulatory) and carboxypeptidase A (digestive) [PUBMED:7674922]. Members of the H family have longer C-termini than those of family A [PUBMED:1449602], and carboxypeptidase M (a member of the H family) is bound to the membrane by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor, unlike the majority of the M14 family, which are soluble [PUBMED:7674922].
The zinc ligands have been determined as two histidines and a glutamate, and the catalytic residue has been identified as a C-terminal glutamate, but these do not form the characteristic metalloprotease HEXXH motif [PUBMED:7674922, PUBMED:6887246]. Members of the carboxypeptidase A family are synthesised as inactive molecules with propeptides that must be cleaved to activate the enzyme. Structural studies of carboxypeptidases A and B reveal the propeptide to exist as a globular domain, followed by an extended alpha-helix; this shields the catalytic site, without specifically binding to it, while the substrate-binding site is blocked by making specific contacts [PUBMED:7674922, PUBMED:1548696].
Other examples of protein families in this entry include:
- Intron maturase
- Putative mitochondrial processing peptidase alpha subunit
- Superoxide dismutase [Mn] (EC)
- Asparagine synthetase [glutamine-hydrolysing] 3 (EC)
- Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (EC)
The mapping between Pfam and Gene Ontology is provided by InterPro. If you use this data please cite InterPro.
|Molecular function||zinc ion binding (GO:0008270)|
|metallocarboxypeptidase activity (GO:0004181)|
|Biological process||proteolysis (GO:0006508)|
- the number of sequences which exhibit this architecture
a textual description of the architecture, e.g. Gla, EGF x 2, Trypsin.
This example describes an architecture with one
Gladomain, followed by two consecutive
EGFdomains, and finally a single
- the UniProt description of the protein sequence
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This clan contains peptidases belonging to MEROPS clan MH, MC and MF. We also include Nicastrin that is part of the gamma secretase complex and not known to be a peptidase.
The clan contains the following 12 members:Amidase_3 AstE_AspA DUF2172 DUF2817 Nicastrin Peptidase_M14 Peptidase_M17 Peptidase_M18 Peptidase_M20 Peptidase_M28 Peptidase_M42 SpoIIP
We make a range of alignments for each Pfam-A family:
- the curated alignment from which the HMM for the family is built
- the alignment generated by searching the sequence database using the HMM
- Representative Proteomes (RPs) at 15%, 35%, 55% and 75% co-membership thresholds
- alignment generated by searching the NCBI sequence database using the family HMM
- alignment generated by searching the metagenomics sequence database using the family HMM
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Curation and family details
|Seed source:||Prosite & Pfam-B_4832 (Release 7.5)|
|Author:||Finn RD, Bateman A|
|Number in seed:||114|
|Number in full:||5755|
|Average length of the domain:||247.20 aa|
|Average identity of full alignment:||18 %|
|Average coverage of the sequence by the domain:||49.68 %|
|HMM build commands:||
build method: hmmbuild -o /dev/null HMM SEED
search method: hmmsearch -Z 23193494 -E 1000 --cpu 4 HMM pfamseq
|Family (HMM) version:||19|
|Download:||download the raw HMM for this family|
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There are 2 interactions for this family. More...
We determine these interactions using iPfam, which considers the interactions between residues in three-dimensional protein structures and maps those interactions back to Pfam families. You can find more information about the iPfam algorithm in the journal article that accompanies the website.
For those sequences which have a structure in the Protein DataBank, we use the mapping between UniProt, PDB and Pfam coordinate systems from the PDBe group, to allow us to map Pfam domains onto UniProt sequences and three-dimensional protein structures. The table below shows the structures on which the Peptidase_M14 domain has been found. There are 160 instances of this domain found in the PDB. Note that there may be multiple copies of the domain in a single PDB structure, since many structures contain multiple copies of the same protein seqence.
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